C++ How to Program [10 ed.] 9780134448237, 0134448235 - DOKUMEN.PUB (2022)

Table of contents :
C++ HOW TO PROGRAM Introducing the New C++14 Standard
How To Program Series
Deitel® Developer Series
Simply Series
VitalSource Web Books
LiveLessons Video Learning Products
C++ How to Program Introducing the New C++14 Standard
Trademarks
Contents
Preface
Contacting the Authors
Join the Deitel & Associates, Inc. Social Media Communities
The C++11 and C++14 Standards
Key Features of C++ How to Program, 10/e
New in This Edition
Object-Oriented Programming
Hundreds of Code Examples
Exercises
Illustrations and Figures
Dependency Chart
Teaching Approach
Secure C++ Programming
Online Chapters, Appendices and Other Content
Obtaining the Software Used in C++ How to Program, 10/e
Instructor Supplements
Online Practice and Assessment with MyProgrammingLab™
Reviewers
About the Authors
Before You Begin
1 Introduction to Computers and C++
Objectives
Outline
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Computers and the Internet in Industry and Research
1.3 Hardware and Software
1.4 Data Hierarchy
1.5 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages and High-Level Languages
1.6 C and C++
1.7 Programming Languages
1.8 Introduction to Object Technology
1.9 Typical C++ Development Environment
1.10 Test-Driving a C++ Application
1.10.1 Compiling and Running an Application in Visual Studio 2015 for Windows
1.10.2 Compiling and Running Using GNU C++ on Linux
1.10.3 Compiling and Running with Xcode on Mac OS X
1.11 Operating Systems
1.12 The Internet and the World Wide Web
1.13 Some Key Software Development Terminology
1.14 C++11 and C++14: The Latest C++ Versions
1.15 Boost C++ Libraries
1.16 Keeping Up to Date with Information Technologies
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Making a Difference
Making a Difference Resources
2 Introduction to C++ Programming, Input/Output and Operators
Objectives
Outline
2.1 Introduction
2.2 First Program in C++: Printing a Line of Text
2.3 Modifying Our First C++ Program
2.4 Another C++ Program: Adding Integers
2.5 Memory Concepts
2.6 Arithmetic
2.7 Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators
2.8 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Making a Difference
3 Introduction to Classes, Objects, Member Functions and Strings
Objectives
Outline
3.1 Introduction 1
3.2 Test-Driving an Account Object
3.2.1 Instantiating an Object
3.2.2 Headers and Source-Code Files
3.2.3 Calling Class Account’s getName Member Function
3.2.4 Inputting a string with getline
3.2.5 Calling Class Account’s setName Member Function
3.3 Account Class with a Data Member and Set and Get Member Functions
3.3.1 Account Class Definition
3.3.2 Keyword class and the Class Body
3.3.3 Data Member name of Type string
3.3.4 setName Member Function
3.3.5 getName Member Function
3.3.6 Access Specifiers private and public
3.3.7 Account UML Class Diagram
3.4 Account Class: Initializing Objects with Constructors
3.4.1 Defining an Account Constructor for Custom Object Initialization
3.4.2 Initializing Account Objects When They’re Created
3.4.3 Account UML Class Diagram with a Constructor
3.5 Software Engineering with Set and Get Member Functions
3.6 Account Class with a Balance; Data Validation
3.6.1 Data Member balance
3.6.2 Two-Parameter Constructor with Validation
3.6.3 deposit Member Function with Validation
3.6.4 getBalance Member Function
3.6.5 Manipulating Account Objects with Balances
3.6.6 Account UML Class Diagram with a Balance and Member Functions deposit and getBalance
3.7 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Making a Difference
4 Algorithm Development and Control Statements: Part 1
Objectives
Outline
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Algorithms
4.3 Pseudocode
4.4 Control Structures
4.5 if Single-Selection Statement
4.6 if…else Double-Selection Statement
4.7 Student Class: Nested if…else Statements
4.8 while Iteration Statement
4.9 Formulating Algorithms: Counter-Controlled Iteration
4.9.1 Pseudocode Algorithm with Counter-Controlled Iteration
4.9.2 Implementing Counter-Controlled Iteration
4.9.3 Notes on Integer Division and Truncation
4.9.4 Arithmetic Overflow
4.9.5 Input Validation
4.10 Formulating Algorithms: Sentinel-Controlled Iteration
4.10.1 Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement: The Top and First Refinement
4.10.2 Proceeding to the Second Refinement
4.10.3 Implementing Sentinel-Controlled Iteration
4.10.4 Converting Between Fundamental Types Explicitly and Implicitly
4.10.5 Formatting Floating-Point Numbers
4.10.6 Unsigned Integers and User Input
4.11 Formulating Algorithms: Nested Control Statements
4.11.1 Problem Statement
4.11.2 Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement: Pseudocode Representation of the Top
4.11.3 Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement: First Refinement
4.11.4 Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement: Second Refinement
4.11.5 Complete Second Refinement of the Pseudocode
4.11.6 Program That Implements the Pseudocode Algorithm
4.11.7 Preventing Narrowing Conversions with List Initialization
4.12 Compound Assignment Operators
4.13 Increment and Decrement Operators
4.14 Fundamental Types Are Not Portable
4.15 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Making a Difference
5 Control Statements: Part 2; Logical Operators
Objectives
Outline
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Essentials of Counter-Controlled Iteration
5.3 for Iteration Statement
5.4 Examples Using the for Statement
5.5 Application: Summing Even Integers
5.6 Application: Compound-Interest Calculations
5.7 Case Study: Integer-Based Monetary Calculations with Class DollarAmount
5.7.1 Demonstrating Class DollarAmount
5.7.2 Class DollarAmount
C++11 Type int64_t
DollarAmount Constructor
DollarAmount Member Functions add and subtract
DollarAmount Member Function addInterest
Member Function toString
Banker’s Rounding
Even int64_t Is Limited
A Note About Arithmetic Operators and Modifying Operands
5.8 do…while Iteration Statement
5.9 switch Multiple-Selection Statement
5.10 break and continue Statements
5.11 Logical Operators
5.11.1 Logical AND (&&) Operator
5.11.2 Logical OR (||) Operator
5.11.3 Short-Circuit Evaluation
5.11.4 Logical Negation (!) Operator
5.11.5 Logical Operators Example
5.12 Confusing the Equality (==) and Assignment (=) Operators
5.13 Structured-Programming Summary
5.14 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Making a Difference
6 Functions and an Introduction to Recursion
Objectives
Outline
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Program Components in C++
6.3 Math Library Functions
6.4 Function Prototypes
6.5 Function-Prototype and Argument-Coercion Notes
6.6 C++ Standard Library Headers
6.7 Case Study: Random-Number Generation2
6.7.1 Rolling a Six-Sided Die
6.7.2 Rolling a Six-Sided Die 60,000,000 Times
6.7.3 Randomizing the Random-Number Generator with srand
6.7.4 Seeding the Random-Number Generator with the Current Time
6.7.5 Scaling and Shifting Random Numbers
6.8 Case Study: Game of Chance; Introducing Scoped enums
6.9 C++11 Random Numbers
6.10 Scope Rules
6.11 Function-Call Stack and Activation Records
6.12 Inline Functions
6.13 References and Reference Parameters
6.14 Default Arguments
6.15 Unary Scope Resolution Operator
6.16 Function Overloading
6.17 Function Templates
6.18 Recursion
6.19 Example Using Recursion: Fibonacci Series
6.20 Recursion vs. Iteration
6.21 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Making a Difference
7 Class Templates array and vector; Catching Exceptions
Objectives
Outline
7.1 Introduction
7.2 arrays
7.3 Declaring arrays
7.4 Examples Using arrays The following examples demonstrate how to declare, initialize and manipulate arrays.
7.4.1 Declaring an array and Using a Loop to Initialize the array’s Elements
7.4.2 Initializing an array in a Declaration with an Initializer List
7.4.3 Specifying an array’s Size with a Constant Variable and Setting array Elements with Calculations
7.4.4 Summing the Elements of an array
7.4.5 Using a Bar Chart to Display array Data Graphically
7.4.6 Using the Elements of an array as Counters
7.4.7 Using arrays to Summarize Survey Results
7.4.8 Static Local arrays and Automatic Local arrays
7.5 Range-Based for Statement
7.6 Case Study: Class GradeBook Using an array to Store Grades
7.7 Sorting and Searching arrays
7.8 Multidimensional arrays
7.9 Case Study: Class GradeBook Using a Two-Dimensional array
7.10 Introduction to C++ Standard Library Class Template vector
7.11 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Recursion Exercises
Making a Difference
8 Pointers
Objectives
Outline
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Pointer Variable Declarations and Initialization
8.3 Pointer Operators
8.4 Pass-by-Reference with Pointers
8.5 Built-In Arrays
8.6 Using const with Pointers
8.7 sizeof Operator
8.8 Pointer Expressions and Pointer Arithmetic
8.9 Relationship Between Pointers and Built-In Arrays
8.10 Pointer-Based Strings (Optional)
8.11 Note About Smart Pointers
8.12 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Special Section: Building Your Own Computer
9 Classes: A Deeper Look
Objectives
Outline
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Time Class Case Study: Separating Interface from Implementation
9.2.1 Interface of a Class
9.2.2 Separating the Interface from the Implementation
9.2.3 Time Class Definition
9.2.4 Time Class Member Functions
9.2.5 Scope Resolution Operator (::)
9.2.6 Including the Class Header in the Source-Code File
9.2.7 Time Class Member Function setTime and Throwing Exceptions
9.2.8 Time Class Member Function toUniversalString and String Stream Processing
9.2.9 Time Class Member Function toStandardString
9.2.10 Implicitly Inlining Member Functions
9.2.11 Member Functions vs. Global Functions
9.2.12 Using Class Time
9.2.13 Object Size
9.3 Compilation and Linking Process
9.4 Class Scope and Accessing Class Members
9.5 Access Functions and Utility Functions
9.6 Time Class Case Study: Constructors with Default Arguments The program of Figs. 9.5–9.7 enhances class Time to demonstrate how arguments can be passed to a constructor implicitly.
9.6.1 Constructors with Default Arguments
9.6.2 Overloaded Constructors and C++11 Delegating Constructors
9.7 Destructors
9.8 When Constructors and Destructors Are Called
9.8.1 Constructors and Destructors for Objects in Global Scope
9.8.2 Constructors and Destructors for Non-static Local Objects
9.8.3 Constructors and Destructors for static Local Objects
9.8.4 Demonstrating When Constructors and Destructors Are Called
9.9 Time Class Case Study: A Subtle Trap — Returning a Reference or a Pointer to a private Data Member
9.10 Default Memberwise Assignment
9.11 const Objects and const Member Functions
9.12 Composition: Objects as Members of Classes
9.13 friend Functions and friend Classes
9.14 Using the this Pointer
9.14.1 Implicitly and Explicitly Using the this Pointer to Access an Object’s Data Members
9.14.2 Using the this Pointer to Enable Cascaded Function Calls
9.15 static Class Members
9.15.1 Motivating Classwide Data
9.15.2 Scope and Initialization of static Data Members
9.15.3 Accessing static Data Members
9.15.4 Demonstrating static Data Members
9.16 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Making a Difference
10 Operator Overloading; Class string
Objectives
Outline
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Using the Overloaded Operators of Standard Library Class string
10.3 Fundamentals of Operator Overloading
10.4 Overloading Binary Operators
10.5 Overloading the Binary Stream Insertion and Stream Extraction Operators
10.6 Overloading Unary Operators
10.7 Overloading the Increment and Decrement Operators
10.8 Case Study: A Date Class
10.9 Dynamic Memory Management
10.10 Case Study: Array Class
10.10.1 Using the Array Class
10.10.2 Array Class Definition
Overloading the Stream Insertion and Stream Extraction Operators as friends
Range-Based for Does Not Work with Dynamically Allocated Built-In Arrays
Array Default Constructor
Array Copy Constructor
Array Destructor
getSize Member Function
Overloaded Assignment Operator
C++11: Move Constructor and Move Assignment Operator
C++11: Deleting Unwanted Member Functions from Your Class
Overloaded Equality and Inequality Operators
Overloaded Subscript Operators
C++11: Managing Dynamically Allocated Memory with unique_ptr
C++11: Passing a List Initializer to a Constructor
10.11 Operators as Member vs. Non-Member Functions
10.12 Converting Between Types
10.13 explicit Constructors and Conversion Operators
10.14 Overloading the Function Call Operator ()
10.15 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
11 Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance
Objectives
Outline
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Base Classes and Derived Classes
11.3 Relationship between Base and Derived Classes
11.3.1 Creating and Using a CommissionEmployee Class
11.3.2 Creating a BasePlusCommissionEmployee Class Without Using Inheritance
11.3.3 Creating a CommissionEmployee–BasePlusCommissionEmployee Inheritance Hierarchy
11.3.4 CommissionEmployee–BasePlusCommissionEmployee Inheritance Hierarchy Using protected Data
Defining Base-Class CommissionEmployee with protected Data
Class BasePlusCommissionEmployee
Testing the Modified BasePlusCommissionEmployee Class
Notes on Using protected Data
11.3.5 CommissionEmployee–BasePlusCommissionEmployee Inheritance Hierarchy Using private Data
Changes to Class CommissionEmployee’s Member-Function Definitions
Changes to Class BasePlusCommissionEmployee’s Member-Function Definitions
BasePlusCommissionEmployee Member Function earnings
BasePlusCommissionEmployee Member Function toString
Testing the Modified Class Hierarchy
Summary of the CommissionEmployee–BasePlusCommissionEmployee Examples
11.4 Constructors and Destructors in Derived Classes
11.5 public, protected and private Inheritance
11.6 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
12 Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism
Objectives
Outline
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Introduction to Polymorphism: Polymorphic Video Game
12.3 Relationships Among Objects in an Inheritance Hierarchy
12.3.1 Invoking Base-Class Functions from Derived-Class Objects
12.3.2 Aiming Derived-Class Pointers at Base-Class Objects
12.3.3 Derived-Class Member-Function Calls via Base-Class Pointers
12.4 Virtual Functions and Virtual Destructors
12.4.1 Why virtual Functions Are Useful
12.4.2 Declaring virtual Functions
12.4.3 Invoking a virtual Function Through a Base-Class Pointer or Reference
12.4.4 Invoking a virtual Function Through an Object’s Name
12.4.5 virtual Functions in the CommissionEmployee Hierarchy
12.4.6 virtual Destructors
12.4.7 C++11: final Member Functions and Classes
12.5 Type Fields and switch Statements
12.6 Abstract Classes and Pure virtual Functions
12.7 Case Study: Payroll System Using Polymorphism
12.7.1 Creating Abstract Base Class Employee
12.7.2 Creating Concrete Derived Class SalariedEmployee
12.7.3 Creating Concrete Derived Class CommissionEmployee
12.7.4 Creating Indirect Concrete Derived Class BasePlusCommissionEmployee
12.7.5 Demonstrating Polymorphic Processing
12.8 (Optional) Polymorphism, Virtual Functions and Dynamic Binding “Under the Hood”
12.9 Case Study: Payroll System Using Polymorphism and Runtime Type Information with Downcasting, dynamic_cast, typeid and type_info
12.10 Wrap-Up
Summary
Section 12.1 Introduction
Section 12.2 Introduction to Polymorphism: Polymorphic Video Game
Section 12.3 Relationships Among Objects in an Inheritance Hierarchy
Section 12.4.2 Declaring virtual Functions Polymorphism is implemented via virtual functions (p. 540) and dynamic binding (p. 541).
Section 12.4.3 Invoking a virtual Function Through a Base-Class Pointer or Reference
Section 12.4.4 Invoking a virtual Function Through an Object’s Name
Section 12.4.5 virtual Functions in the CommissionEmployee Hierarchy
Section 12.4.6 virtual Destructors
Section 12.4.7 C++11: final Member Functions and Classes
Section 12.5 Type Fields and switch Statements
Section 12.6 Abstract Classes and Pure virtual Functions
Section 12.6.1 Pure Virtual Functions
Section 12.8 (Optional) Polymorphism, Virtual Functions and Dynamic Binding “Under the Hood”
Section 12.9 Case Study: Payroll System Using Polymorphism and Runtime Type Information with Downcasting, dynamic_cast, typeid and type_info
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Making a Difference
13 Stream Input/Output: A Deeper Look
Objectives
Outline
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Streams
13.3 Stream Output
13.4 Stream Input
13.4.1 get and getline Member Functions
13.4.2 istream Member Functions peek, putback and ignore
13.4.3 Type-Safe I/O
13.5 Unformatted I/O Using read, write and gcount
13.6 Stream Manipulators: A Deeper Look
13.6.1 Integral Stream Base: dec, oct, hex and setbase
13.6.2 Floating-Point Precision (precision, setprecision)
13.6.3 Field Width (width, setw)
13.6.4 User-Defined Output Stream Manipulators
13.7 Stream Format States and Stream Manipulators
13.7.1 Trailing Zeros and Decimal Points (showpoint)
13.7.2 Justification (left, right and internal)
13.7.3 Padding (fill, setfill)
13.7.4 Integral Stream Base (dec, oct, hex, showbase)
13.7.5 Floating-Point Numbers; Scientific and Fixed Notation (scientific, fixed)
13.7.6 Uppercase/Lowercase Control (uppercase)
13.7.7 Specifying Boolean Format (boolalpha)
13.7.8 Setting and Resetting the Format State via Member Function flags
13.8 Stream Error States
13.9 Tying an Output Stream to an Input Stream
13.10 Wrap-Up
Summary
Section 13.1 Introduction
Section 13.2 Streams
Section 13.2.2 iostream Library Headers
Section 13.2.3 Stream Input/Output Classes and Objects
Section 13.3 Stream Output
Section 13.4 Stream Input
Section 13.5 Unformatted I/O Using read, write and gcount
Section 13.6 Stream Manipulators: A Deeper Look
Section 13.7 Stream Format States and Stream Manipulators
Section 13.8 Stream Error States
Section 13.9 Tying an Output Stream to an Input Stream
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
14 File Processing
Objectives
Outline
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Files and Streams
14.3 Creating a Sequential File
14.4 Reading Data from a Sequential File
14.4.1 Opening a File for Input
14.4.2 Reading from the File
14.4.3 File-Position Pointers
14.4.4 Case Study: Credit Inquiry Program
14.5 C++14: Reading and Writing Quoted Text
14.6 Updating Sequential Files
14.7 Random-Access Files
14.8 Creating a Random-Access File
14.8.1 Writing Bytes with ostream Member Function write
14.8.2 Converting Between Pointer Types with the reinterpret_cast Operator
14.8.3 Credit-Processing Program
14.8.4 Opening a File for Output in Binary Mode
14.9 Writing Data Randomly to a Random-Access File
14.10 Reading from a Random-Access File Sequentially
14.11 Case Study: A Transaction-Processing Program
14.12 Object Serialization
14.13 Wrap-Up
Summary
Section 14.1 Introduction
Section 14.2 Files and Streams
Section 14.3 Creating a Sequential File
Section 14.4 Reading Data from a Sequential File
Section 14.5 C++14: Reading and Writing Quoted Text
Section 14.6 Updating Sequential Files
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Making a Difference
15 Standard Library Containers and Iterators
Objectives
Outline
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Introduction to Containers2
15.3 Introduction to Iterators
15.4 Introduction to Algorithms
15.5 Sequence Containers
15.5.1 vector Sequence Container
Using vectors and Iterators
Creating a vector
vector Member Functions size and capacity
vector Member Function push_back
Updated size and capacity After Modifying a vector
vector Growth
Outputting Built-in Array Contents with Pointers
Outputting vector Contents with Iterators
Displaying the vector’s Contents in Reverse with const_reverse_iterators
C++11: shrink_to_fit
vector Element-Manipulation Functions
ostream_iterator
copy Algorithm
vector Member Functions front and back
Accessing vector Elements
vector Member Function insert
vector Member Function erase
vector Member Function insert with Three Arguments (Range insert)
vector Member Function clear
15.5.2 list Sequence Container
C++11: forward_list Container
list Member Functions
Creating list Objects
list Member Function sort
list Member Function splice
list Member Function merge
list Member Function pop_front
list Member Function unique
list Member Function swap
list Member Functions assign and remove
15.5.3 deque Sequence Container
15.6 Associative Containers
15.6.1 multiset Associative Container
15.6.2 set Associative Container
15.6.3 multimap Associative Container
15.6.4 map Associative Container
15.7 Container Adapters
15.7.1 stack Adapter
15.7.2 queue Adapter
15.7.3 priority_queue Adapter
15.8 Class bitset
15.9 Wrap-Up
Summary
Section 15.1 Introduction
Section 15.2 Introduction to Containers
Section 15.3 Introduction to Iterators
Section 15.4 Introduction to Algorithms
Section 15.5 Sequence Containers
Section 15.5.1 vector Sequence Container
Section 15.5.2 list Sequence Container
Section 15.5.3 deque Sequence Container
Section 15.6 Associative Containers
Section 15.6.1 multiset Associative Container
Section 15.6.2 set Associative Container
Section 15.6.3 multimap Associative Container
Section 15.6.4 map Associative Container
Section 15.7 Container Adapters
Section 15.7.1 stack Adapter
Section 15.7.2 queue Adapter
Section 15.7.3 priority_queue Adapter
Section 15.8 Class bitset
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Recommended Reading
16 Standard Library Algorithms
Objectives
Outline
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Minimum Iterator Requirements
16.3 Lambda Expressions
16.4 Algorithms Sections 16.4.1–16.4.12 demonstrate many of the Standard Library algorithms.
16.4.1 fill, fill_n, generate and generate_n
16.4.2 equal, mismatch and lexicographical_compare
16.4.3 remove, remove_if, remove_copy and remove_copy_if
16.4.4 replace, replace_if, replace_copy and replace_copy_if
16.4.5 Mathematical Algorithms
16.4.6 Basic Searching and Sorting Algorithms
16.4.7 swap, iter_swap and swap_ranges
16.4.8 copy_backward, merge, unique and reverse
16.4.9 inplace_merge, unique_copy and reverse_copy
16.4.10 Set Operations
16.4.11 lower_bound, upper_bound and equal_range
16.4.12 min, max, minmax and minmax_element
16.5 Function Objects
Advantages of Function Objects over Function Pointers
Predefined Function Objects of the Standard Template Library
Using the accumulate Algorithm
16.6 Standard Library Algorithm Summary
16.7 Wrap-Up
Summary
Section 16.1 Introduction
Section 16.3 Lambda Expressions
Section 16.3.1 Algorithm for_each
Section 16.3.2 Lambda with an Empty Introducer
Section 16.3.3 Lambda with a Nonempty Introducer—Capturing Local Variables
Section 16.3.4 Lambda Return Types
Section 16.4.1 fill, fill_n, generate and generate_n
Section 16.4.2 equal, mismatch and lexicographical_compare
Section 16.4.3 remove, remove_if, remove_copy and remove_copy_if
Section 16.4.4 replace, replace_if, replace_copy and replace_copy_if
Section 16.4.5 Mathematical Algorithms
Section 16.4.6 Basic Searching and Sorting Algorithms
Section 16.4.7 swap, iter_swap and swap_ranges
Section 16.4.8 copy_backward, merge, unique and reverse
Section 16.4.9 inplace_merge, unique_copy and reverse_copy
Section 16.4.10 Set Operations
Section 16.4.11 lower_bound, upper_bound and equal_range
Section 16.4.12 min, max, minmax and minmax_element
Section 16.5 Function Objects
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
17 Exception Handling: A Deeper Look
Objectives
Outline
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Exception-Handling Flow of Control; Defining an Exception Class
17.2.4 Defining a catch Handler to Process a DivideByZeroException
17.3 Rethrowing an Exception
17.4 Stack Unwinding
17.5 When to Use Exception Handling
17.6 noexcept: Declaring Functions That Do Not Throw Exceptions
17.7 Constructors, Destructors and Exception Handling
17.8 Processing new Failures
17.9 Class unique_ptr and Dynamic Memory Allocation
17.10 Standard Library Exception Hierarchy
17.11 Wrap-Up
Summary
Section 17.1 Introduction
Section 17.2.1 Defining an Exception Class to Represent the Type of Problem That Might Occur
Section 17.2.5 Termination Model of Exception Handling
Section 17.2.7 Flow of Program Control When the User Enters a Denominator of Zero
Section 17.3 Rethrowing an Exception
Section 17.4 Stack Unwinding
Section 17.5 When to Use Exception Handling
Section 17.6 noexcept: Declaring Functions That Do Not Throw Exceptions
Section 17.7.1 Destructors Called Due to Exceptions
Section 17.7.2 Initializing Local Objects to Acquire Resources
Section 17.8 Processing new Failures
Section 17.9 Class unique_ptr and Dynamic Memory Allocation
Section 17.10 Standard Library Exception Hierarchy
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
18 Introduction to Custom Templates
Objectives
Outline
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Class Templates
18.2.1 Creating Class Template Stack
18.2.2 Class Template Stack’s Data Representation
18.2.3 Class Template Stack’s Member Functions
18.2.4 Declaring a Class Template’s Member Functions Outside the Class Template Definition
18.2.5 Testing Class Template Stack
18.3 Function Template to Manipulate a Class-Template Specialization Object
18.4 Nontype Parameters
18.5 Default Arguments for Template Type Parameters
18.6 Overloading Function Templates
18.7 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
19 Custom Templatized Data Structures
Objectives
Outline
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Self-Referential Classes
19.3 Linked Lists
19.3.1 Testing Our Linked List Implementation
19.3.2 Class Template ListNode
19.3.3 Class Template List
19.3.4 Member Function insertAtFront
19.3.5 Member Function insertAtBack
19.3.6 Member Function removeFromFront
19.3.7 Member Function removeFromBack
19.3.8 Member Function print
19.3.9 Circular Linked Lists and Double Linked Lists
19.4 Stacks
19.4.1 Taking Advantage of the Relationship Between Stack and List
19.4.2 Implementing a Class Template Stack Class Based By Inheriting from List
19.4.3 Dependent Names in Class Templates
19.4.4 Testing the Stack Class Template
19.4.5 Implementing a Class Template Stack Class With Composition of a List Object
19.5 Queues
19.6 Trees
19.6.1 Basic Terminology
19.6.2 Binary Search Trees
19.6.3 Testing the Tree Class Template
19.6.4 Class Template TreeNode
19.6.5 Class Template Tree
19.6.6 Tree Member Function insertNodeHelper
19.6.7 Tree Traversal Functions
19.6.8 Duplicate Elimination
19.6.9 Overview of the Binary Tree Exercises
19.7 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Special Section: Building Your Own Compiler
20 Searching and Sorting
Objectives
Outline
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Searching Algorithms
20.2.1 Linear Search
Function Template linearSearch
Big O: Constant Runtime
Big O: Linear Runtime
Big O: Quadratic Runtime
O(n2) Performance
Linear Search’s Runtime
20.2.2 Binary Search
Binary Search of 15 Integer Values
Binary Search Example
Function Template binarySearch
Function main
Efficiency of Binary Search
20.3 Sorting Algorithms
20.3.1 Insertion Sort
20.3.2 Selection Sort
20.3.3 Merge Sort (A Recursive Implementation)
Sample Merge
Recursive Implementation
Demonstrating Merge Sort
Function mergeSort
Function merge
Efficiency of Merge Sort
Summary of Searching and Sorting Algorithm Efficiencies
20.4 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
21 Class string and String Stream Processing: A Deeper
Objectives
Outline
21.1 Introduction1
21.2 string Assignment and Concatenation
21.3 Comparing strings
21.4 Substrings
21.5 Swapping strings
21.6 string Characteristics
21.7 Finding Substrings and Characters in a string
21.8 Replacing Characters in a string
21.9 Inserting Characters into a string
21.10 Conversion to Pointer-Based char* Strings
21.11 Iterators
21.12 String Stream Processing
21.13 C++11 Numeric Conversion Functions
21.14 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Making a Difference
22 Bits, Characters, C Strings and structs
Objectives
Outline
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Structure Definitions
22.3 typedef and using
22.4 Example: Card Shuffling and Dealing Simulation
22.5 Bitwise Operators
22.6 Bit Fields
22.7 Character-Handling Library
22.8 C String-Manipulation Functions
22.9 C String-Conversion Functions
22.10 Search Functions of the C String-Handling Library
22.11 Memory Functions of the C String-Handling Library
22.12 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Special Section: Advanced String-Manipulation Exercises
Challenging String-Manipulation Projects
Chapters on the Web
A Operator Precedence and Associativity
B ASCII Character Set
C Fundamental Types
D Number Systems
Objectives
Outline
D.1 Introduction
D.2 Abbreviating Binary Numbers as Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers
D.3 Converting Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers to Binary Numbers
D.4 Converting from Binary, Octal or Hexadecimal to Decimal
D.5 Converting from Decimal to Binary, Octal or Hexadecimal
D.6 Negative Binary Numbers: Two’s Complement Notation
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
E Preprocessor
Objectives
Outline
E.1 Introduction
E.2 #include Preprocessing Directive
E.3 #define Preprocessing Directive: Symbolic Constants
E.4 #define Preprocessing Directive: Macros
E.5 Conditional Compilation
E.6 #error and #pragma Preprocessing Directives
E.7 Operators # and ##
E.8 Predefined Symbolic Constants
E.9 Assertions
E.10 Wrap-Up
Summary
Self-Review Exercises
Answers to Self-Review Exercises
Exercises
Appendices on the Web
Index
Symbols
Numerics
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

C++ HOW TO PROGRAM Introducing the New C++14 Standard TENTH EDITION

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C++ How to Program Introducing the New C++14 Standard TENTH EDITION

Paul Deitel Deitel & Associates, Inc. Harvey Deitel Deitel & Associates, Inc.

Boston Columbus Hoboken Indianapolis New York San Francisco Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

Vice President, Editorial Director: Marcia Horton Acquisitions Editor: Tracy Johnson Editorial Assistant: Kristy Alaura VP of Marketing: Christy Lesko Director of Field Marketing: Tim Galligan Product Marketing Manager: Bram Van Kempen Field Marketing Manager: Demetrius Hall Marketing Assistant: Jon Bryant Director of Product Management: Erin Gregg Team Lead, Program and Project Management: Scott Disanno Program Manager: Carole Snyder Project Manager: Robert Engelhardt Senior Specialist, Program Planning and Support: Maura ZaldivarGarcia Cover Art: Finevector / Shutterstock Cover Design: Paul Deitel, Harvey Deitel, Chuti Prasertsith R&P Manager: Rachel Youdelman R&P Project Manager: Timothy Nicholls Inventory Manager: Meredith Maresca Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on page vi. The authors and publisher of this book have used their best efforts in preparing this book. These efforts include the development, research, and testing of the theories and programs to determine their effectiveness. The authors and publisher make no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to these programs or to the

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ISBN-10: 0-13-444823-5 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-444823-7

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Contents 1. Chapters 23–26 and Appendices F–J are PDF documents posted online at the book’s Companion Website, which is accessible from

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/deitel

See the inside front cover for more information. 2. Preface xxiii 3. Before You Begin xxxix 1. 1 Introduction to Computers and C++ 1 A. 1.1 Introduction 2 B. 1.2 Computers and the Internet in Industry and Research 3 C. 1.3 Hardware and Software 5 1. 1.3.1 Moore’s Law 5 2. 1.3.2 Computer Organization 6 D. 1.4 Data Hierarchy 7 E. 1.5 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages and High-Level Languages 10 F. 1.6 C and C++ 11 G. 1.7 Programming Languages 12

H. 1.8 Introduction to Object Technology 14 I. 1.9 Typical C++ Development Environment 17 J. 1.10 Test-Driving a C++ Application 20 1. 1.10.1 Compiling and Running an Application in Visual Studio 2015 for Windows 20 2. 1.10.2 Compiling and Running Using GNU C++ on Linux 25 3. 1.10.3 Compiling and Running with Xcode on Mac OS X 27 K. 1.11 Operating Systems 32 1. 1.11.1 Windows—A Proprietary Operating System 32 2. 1.11.2 Linux—An Open-Source Operating System 32 3. 1.11.3 Apple’s OS X; Apple’s iOS for iPhone®, iPad® and iPod Touch® Devices 33 4. 1.11.4 Google’s Android 33 L. 1.12 The Internet and the World Wide Web 34 M. 1.13 Some Key Software Development Terminology 36 N. 1.14 C++11 and C++14: The Latest C++ Versions 38 O. 1.15 Boost C++ Libraries 39 P. 1.16 Keeping Up to Date with Information Technologies 39

2. 2 Introduction to C++ Programming, Input/Output and Operators 44 A. 2.1 Introduction 45 B. 2.2 First Program in C++: Printing a Line of Text 45 C. 2.3 Modifying Our First C++ Program 49 D. 2.4 Another C++ Program: Adding Integers 50 E. 2.5 Memory Concepts 54 F. 2.6 Arithmetic 55 G. 2.7 Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators 59 H. 2.8 Wrap-Up 63 3. 3 Introduction to Classes, Objects, Member Functions and Strings 73 A. 3.1 Introduction 74 B. 3.2 Test-Driving an Account Object 75 1. 3.2.1 Instantiating an Object 75 2. 3.2.2 Headers and Source-Code Files 76 3. 3.2.3 Calling Class Account ’s getName Member Function 76 4. 3.2.4 Inputting a

string

5. 3.2.5 Calling Class

with

getline

Account ’s setName

77 Member

Function 77 C. 3.3

Account

Class with a Data Member and Set and

Get Member Functions 78 1. 3.3.1 Account Class Definition 78

2. 3.3.2 Keyword

class

3. 3.3.3 Data Member

and the Class Body 79

name

string

4. 3.3.4

setName

Member Function 80

5. 3.3.5

getName

Member Function 82

6. 3.3.6 Access Specifiers 7. 3.3.7 D. 3.4

of Type

Account

Account

private

and

79

public

82

UML Class Diagram 83

Class: Initializing Objects with

Constructors 84 1. 3.4.1 Defining an

Account

Constructor for

Custom Object Initialization 85 2. 3.4.2 Initializing Account Objects When They’re Created 86 3. 3.4.3 Account UML Class Diagram with a Constructor 88 E. 3.5 Software Engineering with Set and Get Member Functions 88 F. 3.6 Account Class with a Balance; Data Validation 89 1. 3.6.1 Data Member

balance

89

2. 3.6.2 Two-Parameter Constructor with Validation 91 3. 3.6.3 deposit Member Function with Validation 91 4. 3.6.4

getBalance

Member Function 91

5. 3.6.5 Manipulating

Account

Objects with

Balances 92 6. 3.6.6 Account UML Class Diagram with a Balance and Member Functions getBalance

deposit

and

94

G. 3.7 Wrap-Up 94 4. 4 Algorithm Development and Control Statements: Part 1 103 A. 4.1 Introduction 104 B. 4.2 Algorithms 105 C. 4.3 Pseudocode 105 D. 4.4 Control Structures 106 1. 4.4.1 Sequence Structure 106 2. 4.4.2 Selection Statements 108 3. 4.4.3 Iteration Statements 108 4. 4.4.4 Summary of Control Statements 109 E. 4.5

if

Single-Selection Statement 109

F. 4.6

if … else

Double-Selection Statement 110

1. 4.6.1 Nested

if … else

Statements 111

2. 4.6.2 Dangling- else Problem 113 3. 4.6.3 Blocks 113 4. 4.6.4 Conditional Operator ( ?: ) 114 G. 4.7

Student

Class: Nested

if … else

Statements 115

H. 4.8

while

Iteration Statement 117

I. 4.9 Formulating Algorithms: Counter-Controlled Iteration 119 1. 4.9.1 Pseudocode Algorithm with CounterControlled Iteration 119 2. 4.9.2 Implementing Counter-Controlled Iteration 120 3. 4.9.3 Notes on Integer Division and Truncation 122 4. 4.9.4 Arithmetic Overflow 122 5. 4.9.5 Input Validation 123 J. 4.10 Formulating Algorithms: Sentinel-Controlled Iteration 123 1. 4.10.1 Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement: The Top and First Refinement 124 2. 4.10.2 Proceeding to the Second Refinement 124 3. 4.10.3 Implementing Sentinel-Controlled Iteration 126 4. 4.10.4 Converting Between Fundamental Types Explicitly and Implicitly 129 5. 4.10.5 Formatting Floating-Point Numbers 130 6. 4.10.6 Unsigned Integers and User Input 130 K. 4.11 Formulating Algorithms: Nested Control Statements 131 1. 4.11.1 Problem Statement 131

2. 4.11.2 Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement: Pseudocode Representation of the Top 132 3. 4.11.3 Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement: First Refinement 132 4. 4.11.4 Top-Down, Stepwise Refinement: Second Refinement 132 5. 4.11.5 Complete Second Refinement of the Pseudocode 133 6. 4.11.6 Program That Implements the Pseudocode Algorithm 134 7. 4.11.7 Preventing Narrowing Conversions with List Initialization 135 L. M. N. O.

4.12 Compound Assignment Operators 136 4.13 Increment and Decrement Operators 137 4.14 Fundamental Types Are Not Portable 140 4.15 Wrap-Up 140

5. 5 Control Statements: Part 2; Logical Operators 159 A. 5.1 Introduction 160 B. 5.2 Essentials of Counter-Controlled Iteration 160 C. 5.3 for Iteration Statement 161 D. 5.4 Examples Using the

for

Statement 165

E. 5.5 Application: Summing Even Integers 166 F. 5.6 Application: Compound-Interest Calculations 167 G. 5.7 Case Study: Integer-Based Monetary Calculations with Class DollarAmount 171 1. 5.7.1 Demonstrating Class

DollarAmount

172

2. 5.7.2 Class H. 5.8 I. 5.9

do … while switch

J. 5.10

break

DollarAmount

175

Iteration Statement 179

Multiple-Selection Statement 180 and

continue

1. 5.10.1

break

2. 5.10.2

continue

Statements 186

Statement 186 Statement 187

K. 5.11 Logical Operators 188 1. 5.11.1 Logical AND ( && ) Operator 188 2. 5.11.2 Logical OR ( || ) Operator 189 3. 5.11.3 Short-Circuit Evaluation 190 4. 5.11.4 Logical Negation ( ! ) Operator 190 5. 5.11.5 Logical Operators Example 191 L. 5.12 Confusing the Equality ( == ) and Assignment ( = ) Operators 192 M. 5.13 Structured-Programming Summary 194 N. 5.14 Wrap-Up 199 6. 6 Functions and an Introduction to Recursion 211 A. 6.1 Introduction 212 B. 6.2 Program Components in C++ 213 C. 6.3 Math Library Functions 214 D. 6.4 Function Prototypes 215 E. 6.5 Function-Prototype and Argument-Coercion Notes 218

1. 6.5.1 Function Signatures and Function Prototypes 219 2. 6.5.2 Argument Coercion 219 3. 6.5.3 Argument-Promotion Rules and Implicit Conversions 219 F. 6.6 C++ Standard Library Headers 220 G. 6.7 Case Study: Random-Number Generation 222 1. 6.7.1 Rolling a Six-Sided Die 223 2. 6.7.2 Rolling a Six-Sided Die 60,000,000 Times 224 3. 6.7.3 Randomizing the Random-Number Generator with srand 225 4. 6.7.4 Seeding the Random-Number Generator with the Current Time 227 5. 6.7.5 Scaling and Shifting Random Numbers 227 H. 6.8 Case Study: Game of Chance; Introducing Scoped enum s 228 I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P.

6.9 C++11 Random Numbers 232 6.10 Scope Rules 233 6.11 Function-Call Stack and Activation Records 237 6.12 Inline Functions 241 6.13 References and Reference Parameters 242 6.14 Default Arguments 245 6.15 Unary Scope Resolution Operator 247 6.16 Function Overloading 248

Q. R. S. T. U.

6.17 Function Templates 251 6.18 Recursion 254 6.19 Example Using Recursion: Fibonacci Series 257 6.20 Recursion vs. Iteration 260 6.21 Wrap-Up 263

7. 7 Class Templates

array

and

vector ;

Catching Exceptions

283 A. 7.1 Introduction 284 B. 7.2 array s 284 C. 7.3 Declaring

array s

D. 7.4 Examples Using

286 array s

1. 7.4.1 Declaring an Initialize the

array

array ’s

2. 7.4.2 Initializing an

286 and Using a Loop to

Elements 287

array

in a Declaration with

an Initializer List 288 3. 7.4.3 Specifying an array ’s Size with a Constant Variable and Setting

array

Elements

with Calculations 289 4. 7.4.4 Summing the Elements of an

array

290

5. 7.4.5 Using a Bar Chart to Display

array

Data

Graphically 291 6. 7.4.6 Using the Elements of an

array

as

Counters 292 7. 7.4.7 Using array s to Summarize Survey Results 293

8. 7.4.8 Static Local array s

array s

and Automatic Local

296

E. 7.5 Range-Based

for

Statement 298

F. 7.6 Case Study: Class

GradeBook

Store Grades 300 G. 7.7 Sorting and Searching

Using an

array s

array s

I. 7.9 Case Study: Class array

sort

and

306

H. 7.8 Multidimensional Dimensional

to

306

1. 7.7.1 Sorting 306 2. 7.7.2 Searching 306 3. 7.7.3 Demonstrating Functions binary_search

array

307

GradeBook

Using a Two-

311

J. 7.10 Introduction to C++ Standard Library Class Template vector 317 K. 7.11 Wrap-Up 323 8. 8 Pointers 339 A. 8.1 Introduction 340 B. 8.2 Pointer Variable Declarations and Initialization 341 1. 8.2.1 Declaring Pointers 341 2. 8.2.2 Initializing Pointers 342 3. 8.2.3 Null Pointers Prior to C++11 342

C. 8.3 Pointer Operators 342 1. 8.3.1 Address ( & ) Operator 342 2. 8.3.2 Indirection ( * ) Operator 343 3. 8.3.3 Using the Address ( & ) and Indirection ( * ) Operators 344 D. 8.4 Pass-by-Reference with Pointers 345 E. 8.5 Built-In Arrays 349 1. 8.5.1 Declaring and Accessing a Built-In Array 349 2. 8.5.2 Initializing Built-In Arrays 350 3. 8.5.3 Passing Built-In Arrays to Functions 350 4. 8.5.4 Declaring Built-In Array Parameters 351 5. 8.5.5 C++11: Standard Library Functions begin and

end

351

6. 8.5.6 Built-In Array Limitations 351 7. 8.5.7 Built-In Arrays Sometimes Are Required 352 F. 8.6 Using

const

with Pointers 352

1. 8.6.1 Nonconstant Pointer to Nonconstant Data 353 2. 8.6.2 Nonconstant Pointer to Constant Data 353 3. 8.6.3 Constant Pointer to Nonconstant Data 354 4. 8.6.4 Constant Pointer to Constant Data 355

G. 8.7

sizeof

Operator 356

H. 8.8 Pointer Expressions and Pointer Arithmetic 358 1. 8.8.1 Adding Integers to and Subtracting Integers from Pointers 359 2. 8.8.2 Subtracting Pointers 360 3. 8.8.3 Pointer Assignment 361 4. 8.8.4 Cannot Dereference a void* 361 5. 8.8.5 Comparing Pointers 361 I. 8.9 Relationship Between Pointers and Built-In Arrays 361 1. 8.9.1 Pointer/Offset Notation 362 2. 8.9.2 Pointer/Offset Notation with the Built-In Array’s Name as the Pointer 362 3. 8.9.3 Pointer/Subscript Notation 362 4. 8.9.4 Demonstrating the Relationship Between Pointers and Built-In Arrays 363 J. 8.10 Pointer-Based Strings (Optional) 364 K. 8.11 Note About Smart Pointers 367 L. 8.12 Wrap-Up 367 9. 9 Classes: A Deeper Look 385 A. 9.1 Introduction 386 B. 9.2 Time Class Case Study: Separating Interface from Implementation 387 1. 9.2.1 Interface of a Class 388

2. 9.2.2 Separating the Interface from the Implementation 388 3. 9.2.3 Time Class Definition 388 4. 9.2.4

Time

Class Member Functions 390

5. 9.2.5 Scope Resolution Operator ( :: ) 391 6. 9.2.6 Including the Class Header in the Source-Code File 391 7. 9.2.7 Time Class Member Function setTime and Throwing Exceptions 392 8. 9.2.8 Time Class Member Function toUniversalString

and String Stream

Processing 392 9. 9.2.9 Time Class Member Function toStandardString

393

10. 9.2.10 Implicitly Inlining Member Functions 393 11. 9.2.11 Member Functions vs. Global Functions 393 12. 9.2.12 Using Class Time 394 13. 9.2.13 Object Size 396 C. D. E. F.

9.3 Compilation and Linking Process 396 9.4 Class Scope and Accessing Class Members 398 9.5 Access Functions and Utility Functions 399 9.6 Time Class Case Study: Constructors with Default Arguments 399

1. 9.6.1 Constructors with Default Arguments 399 2. 9.6.2 Overloaded Constructors and C++11 Delegating Constructors 404 G. 9.7 Destructors 405 H. 9.8 When Constructors and Destructors Are Called 405 1. 9.8.1 Constructors and Destructors for Objects in Global Scope 406 2. 9.8.2 Constructors and Destructors for Nonstatic Local Objects 406 3. 9.8.3 Constructors and Destructors for

static

Local Objects 406 4. 9.8.4 Demonstrating When Constructors and Destructors Are Called 406 I. 9.9 Time Class Case Study: A Subtle Trap— Returning a Reference or a Pointer to a private Data Member 409 J. 9.10 Default Memberwise Assignment 411 K. 9.11 const Objects and const Member Functions 413 L. 9.12 Composition: Objects as Members of Classes 415 M. 9.13 friend Functions and friend Classes 421 N. 9.14 Using the

this

Pointer 423

1. 9.14.1 Implicitly and Explicitly Using the

this

Pointer to Access an Object’s Data Members 424 2. 9.14.2 Using the this Pointer to Enable Cascaded Function Calls 425 O. 9.15

static

Class Members 429

1. 9.15.1 Motivating Classwide Data 429 2. 9.15.2 Scope and Initialization of static Data Members 429 3. 9.15.3 Accessing

static

4. 9.15.4 Demonstrating

Data Members 430

static

Data Members

430 P. 9.16 Wrap-Up 433 10. 10 Operator Overloading; Class

string

447

A. 10.1 Introduction 448 B. 10.2 Using the Overloaded Operators of Standard Library Class string 449 C. 10.3 Fundamentals of Operator Overloading 453 1. 10.3.1 Operator Overloading Is Not Automatic 453 2. 10.3.2 Operators That You Do Not Have to Overload 453 3. 10.3.3 Operators That Cannot Be Overloaded 454

4. 10.3.4 Rules and Restrictions on Operator Overloading 454 D. 10.4 Overloading Binary Operators 455 E. 10.5 Overloading the Binary Stream Insertion and Stream Extraction Operators 455 F. 10.6 Overloading Unary Operators 459 G. 10.7 Overloading the Increment and Decrement Operators 460 H. 10.8 Case Study: A Date Class 461 I. 10.9 Dynamic Memory Management 466 J. 10.10 Case Study: Array Class 468 1. 10.10.1 Using the 2. 10.10.2

Array

Array

Class 469

Class Definition 473

K. 10.11 Operators as Member vs. Non-Member Functions 480 L. 10.12 Converting Between Types 481 M. 10.13 explicit Constructors and Conversion Operators 482 N. 10.14 Overloading the Function Call Operator

()

O. 10.15 Wrap-Up 485 11. 11 Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance 497 A. 11.1 Introduction 498 B. 11.2 Base Classes and Derived Classes 499 1. 11.2.1 CommunityMember Class Hierarchy 499

485

2. 11.2.2

Shape

Class Hierarchy 500

C. 11.3 Relationship between Base and Derived Classes 501 1. 11.3.1 Creating and Using a CommissionEmployee Class 501 2. 11.3.2 Creating a

BasePlusCommissionEmployee

Class Without Using Inheritance 506 3. 11.3.3 Creating a CommissionEmployee – BasePlusCommissionEmployee Inheritance Hierarchy 511 4. 11.3.4 CommissionEmployee – BasePlusCommissionEmployee Inheritance Hierarchy Using

protected

Data

515 5. 11.3.5 CommissionEmployee – BasePlusCommissionEmployee

Inheritance Hierarchy Using

private

Data 519

D. 11.4 Constructors and Destructors in Derived Classes 523 E. 11.5 public , protected and private Inheritance 525 F. 11.6 Wrap-Up 526 12. 12 Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism 531 A. 12.1 Introduction 532

B. 12.2 Introduction to Polymorphism: Polymorphic Video Game 533 C. 12.3 Relationships Among Objects in an Inheritance Hierarchy 534 1. 12.3.1 Invoking Base-Class Functions from Derived-Class Objects 534 2. 12.3.2 Aiming Derived-Class Pointers at BaseClass Objects 537 3. 12.3.3 Derived-Class Member-Function Calls via Base-Class Pointers 538 D. 12.4 Virtual Functions and Virtual Destructors 540 1. 12.4.1 Why virtual Functions Are Useful 540 2. 12.4.2 Declaring

virtual

3. 12.4.3 Invoking a

Functions 540

virtual

Function Through a

Base-Class Pointer or Reference 541 4. 12.4.4 Invoking a virtual Function Through an Object’s Name 541 5. 12.4.5 virtual Functions in the CommissionEmployee

6. 12.4.6

virtual

7. 12.4.7 C++11:

Hierarchy 541

Destructors 546 final

Member Functions and

Classes 546 E. 12.5 Type Fields and

switch

Statements 547

F. 12.6 Abstract Classes and Pure 547

virtual

Functions

1. 12.6.1 Pure

virtual

Functions 548

2. 12.6.2 Device Drivers: Polymorphism in Operating Systems 549 G. 12.7 Case Study: Payroll System Using Polymorphism 549 1. 12.7.1 Creating Abstract Base Class

Employee

550 2. 12.7.2 Creating Concrete Derived Class SalariedEmployee 553 3. 12.7.3 Creating Concrete Derived Class CommissionEmployee 556 4. 12.7.4 Creating Indirect Concrete Derived Class BasePlusCommissionEmployee 558 5. 12.7.5 Demonstrating Polymorphic Processing 560 H. 12.8 (Optional) Polymorphism, Virtual Functions and Dynamic Binding “Under the Hood” 563 I. 12.9 Case Study: Payroll System Using Polymorphism and Runtime Type Information with Downcasting, dynamic_cast , typeid and type_info 567 J. 12.10 Wrap-Up 570 13. 13 Stream Input/Output: A Deeper Look 577 A. 13.1 Introduction 578 B. 13.2 Streams 579 1. 13.2.1 Classic Streams vs. Standard Streams

579 2. 13.2.2

iostream

Library Headers 580

3. 13.2.3 Stream Input/Output Classes and Objects 580 C. 13.3 Stream Output 581 1. 13.3.1 Output of char* Variables 581 2. 13.3.2 Character Output Using Member Function put 582 D. 13.4 Stream Input 582 1. 13.4.1 get and getline Member Functions 583 2. 13.4.2 and

istream

ignore

Member Functions

peek , putback

586

3. 13.4.3 Type-Safe I/O 586 E. 13.5 Unformatted I/O Using

read , write

and

gcount

586 F. 13.6 Stream Manipulators: A Deeper Look 587 1. 13.6.1 Integral Stream Base: dec , oct , hex and setbase

588

2. 13.6.2 Floating-Point Precision ( precision , setprecision )

588

3. 13.6.3 Field Width ( width ,

setw )

590

4. 13.6.4 User-Defined Output Stream Manipulators 591

G. 13.7 Stream Format States and Stream Manipulators 592 1. 13.7.1 Trailing Zeros and Decimal Points ( showpoint ) 593 2. 13.7.2 Justification ( left , 594 3. 13.7.3 Padding ( fill ,

right

setfill )

and

595

4. 13.7.4 Integral Stream Base ( dec , showbase )

internal )

oct , hex ,

597

5. 13.7.5 Floating-Point Numbers; Scientific and Fixed Notation ( scientific , fixed ) 597 6. 13.7.6 Uppercase/Lowercase Control ( uppercase ) 598 7. 13.7.7 Specifying Boolean Format ( boolalpha ) 599 8. 13.7.8 Setting and Resetting the Format State via Member Function flags 600 H. 13.8 Stream Error States 601 I. 13.9 Tying an Output Stream to an Input Stream 604 J. 13.10 Wrap-Up 605 14. 14 File Processing 615 A. 14.1 Introduction 616 B. 14.2 Files and Streams 616 C. 14.3 Creating a Sequential File 617 1. 14.3.1 Opening a File 618

2. 14.3.2 Opening a File via the

open

Member

Function 619 3. 14.3.3 Testing Whether a File Was Opened Successfully 619 4. 14.3.4 Overloaded bool Operator 620 5. 14.3.5 Processing Data 620 6. 14.3.6 Closing a File 620 7. 14.3.7 Sample Execution 621 D. 14.4 Reading Data from a Sequential File 621 1. 14.4.1 Opening a File for Input 622 2. 14.4.2 Reading from the File 622 3. 14.4.3 File-Position Pointers 622 4. 14.4.4 Case Study: Credit Inquiry Program 623 E. F. G. H.

14.5 C++14: Reading and Writing Quoted Text 626 14.6 Updating Sequential Files 627 14.7 Random-Access Files 628 14.8 Creating a Random-Access File 629 1. 14.8.1 Writing Bytes with ostream Member Function

write

629

2. 14.8.2 Converting Between Pointer Types with the reinterpret_cast Operator 629 3. 14.8.3 Credit-Processing Program 630 4. 14.8.4 Opening a File for Output in Binary Mode 633

I. 14.9 Writing Data Randomly to a Random-Access File 633 1. 14.9.1 Opening a File for Input and Output in Binary Mode 635 2. 14.9.2 Positioning the File-Position Pointer 635 J. 14.10 Reading from a Random-Access File Sequentially 635 K. 14.11 Case Study: A Transaction-Processing Program 637 L. 14.12 Object Serialization 643 M. 14.13 Wrap-Up 644 15. 15 Standard Library Containers and Iterators 655 A. 15.1 Introduction 656 B. 15.2 Introduction to Containers 658 C. 15.3 Introduction to Iterators 662 D. 15.4 Introduction to Algorithms 667 E. 15.5 Sequence Containers 667 1. 15.5.1 vector Sequence Container 668 2. 15.5.2

list

Sequence Container 675

3. 15.5.3

deque

Sequence Container 680

F. 15.6 Associative Containers 681 1. 15.6.1 multiset Associative Container 682 2. 15.6.2

set

Associative Container 685

3. 15.6.3

multimap

Associative Container 687

4. 15.6.4

map

Associative Container 689

G. 15.7 Container Adapters 690 1. 15.7.1 stack Adapter 691 2. 15.7.2

queue

3. 15.7.3

priority_queue

H. 15.8 Class

bitset

Adapter 693 Adapter 694

695

I. 15.9 Wrap-Up 697 16. 16 Standard Library Algorithms 707 A. 16.1 Introduction 708 B. 16.2 Minimum Iterator Requirements 708 C. 16.3 Lambda Expressions 710 1. 16.3.1 Algorithm for_each 711 2. 16.3.2 Lambda with an Empty Introducer 711 3. 16.3.3 Lambda with a Nonempty Introducer— Capturing Local Variables 712 4. 16.3.4 Lambda Return Types 712 D. 16.4 Algorithms 712 1. 16.4.1 fill , fill_n , 712 2. 16.4.2

generate

equal , mismatch

generate_n

and

lexicographical_compare

3. 16.4.3

and

715

remove , remove_if , remove_copy

remove_copy_if

718

and

4. 16.4.4

replace , replace_if , replace_copy

replace_copy_if

and

721

5. 16.4.5 Mathematical Algorithms 723 6. 16.4.6 Basic Searching and Sorting Algorithms 726 7. 16.4.7 swap , iter_swap and swap_ranges 731 8. 16.4.8

copy_backward , merge , unique

732 9. 16.4.9

inplace_merge , unique_copy

reverse_copy

and

reverse

and

735

10. 16.4.10 Set Operations 737 11. 16.4.11 lower_bound , upper_bound and equal_range

12. 16.4.12

740

min , max , minmax

and

minmax_element

742

E. 16.5 Function Objects 744 F. 16.6 Standard Library Algorithm Summary 747 G. 16.7 Wrap-Up 749 17. 17 Exception Handling: A Deeper Look 757 A. 17.1 Introduction 758 B. 17.2 Exception-Handling Flow of Control; Defining an Exception Class 759 1. 17.2.1 Defining an Exception Class to Represent the Type of Problem That Might Occur 759 2. 17.2.2 Demonstrating Exception Handling 760

3. 17.2.3 Enclosing Code in a 4. 17.2.4 Defining a

catch

DivideByZeroException

try

Block 761

Handler to Process a

762

5. 17.2.5 Termination Model of Exception Handling 762 6. 17.2.6 Flow of Program Control When the User Enters a Nonzero Denominator 763 7. 17.2.7 Flow of Program Control When the User Enters a Denominator of Zero 763 C. D. E. F.

17.3 Rethrowing an Exception 764 17.4 Stack Unwinding 766 17.5 When to Use Exception Handling 767 17.6 noexcept : Declaring Functions That Do Not

Throw Exceptions 768 G. 17.7 Constructors, Destructors and Exception Handling 768 1. 17.7.1 Destructors Called Due to Exceptions 768 2. 17.7.2 Initializing Local Objects to Acquire Resources 769 H. 17.8 Processing

new

Failures 769

1. 17.8.1

new

Throwing

bad_alloc

2. 17.8.2

new

Returning

nullptr

3. 17.8.3 Handling set_new_handler

new

771

on Failure 769

on Failure 770

Failures Using Function

I. 17.9 Class

unique_ptr

and Dynamic Memory

Allocation 772 1. 17.9.1 unique_ptr Ownership 774 2. 17.9.2

unique_ptr

to a Built-In Array 775

J. 17.10 Standard Library Exception Hierarchy 775 K. 17.11 Wrap-Up 777 18. 18 Introduction to Custom Templates 783 A. 18.1 Introduction 784 B. 18.2 Class Templates 785 1. 18.2.1 Creating Class Template

Stack

786

2. 18.2.2 Class Template

Stack ’s

Data

Representation 787 3. 18.2.3 Class Template

Stack ’s

Member

Functions 787 4. 18.2.4 Declaring a Class Template’s Member Functions Outside the Class Template Definition 788 5. 18.2.5 Testing Class Template Stack 788 C. 18.3 Function Template to Manipulate a ClassTemplate Specialization Object 790 D. 18.4 Nontype Parameters 792 E. 18.5 Default Arguments for Template Type Parameters 792 F. 18.6 Overloading Function Templates 793

G. 18.7 Wrap-Up 793 19. 19 Custom Templatized Data Structures 797 A. 19.1 Introduction 798 1. 19.1.1 Always Prefer the Standard Library’s Containers, Iterators and Algorithms, if Possible 799 2. 19.1.2 Special Section: Building Your Own Compiler 799 B. 19.2 Self-Referential Classes 799 C. 19.3 Linked Lists 800 1. 19.3.1 Testing Our Linked List Implementation 802 2. 19.3.2 Class Template ListNode 805 3. 19.3.3 Class Template

List

806

4. 19.3.4 Member Function

insertAtFront

809

5. 19.3.5 Member Function

insertAtBack

6. 19.3.6 Member Function

removeFromFront

7. 19.3.7 Member Function

removeFromBack

8. 19.3.8 Member Function

print

810 810

811

812

9. 19.3.9 Circular Linked Lists and Double Linked Lists 813 D. 19.4 Stacks 814 1. 19.4.1 Taking Advantage of the Relationship Between Stack and List 815

2. 19.4.2 Implementing a Class Template Class Based By Inheriting from

List

Stack

815

3. 19.4.3 Dependent Names in Class Templates 816 4. 19.4.4 Testing the Stack Class Template 817 5. 19.4.5 Implementing a Class Template Class With Composition of a

List

Object 818

E. 19.5 Queues 819 1. 19.5.1 Applications of Queues 819 2. 19.5.2 Implementing a Class Template Class Based By Inheriting from 3. 19.5.3 Testing the

Queue

Stack

List

Queue

820

Class Template 821

F. 19.6 Trees 823 1. 19.6.1 Basic Terminology 823 2. 19.6.2 Binary Search Trees 824 3. 19.6.3 Testing the Tree Class Template 824 4. 19.6.4 Class Template

TreeNode

5. 19.6.5 Class Template

Tree

826

827

6. 19.6.6

Tree

Member Function

829 7. 19.6.7

Tree

Traversal Functions 829

insertNodeHelper

8. 19.6.8 Duplicate Elimination 830 9. 19.6.9 Overview of the Binary Tree Exercises 830

G. 19.7 Wrap-Up 831 20. 20 Searching and Sorting 841 A. 20.1 Introduction 842 B. 20.2 Searching Algorithms 843 1. 20.2.1 Linear Search 843 2. 20.2.2 Binary Search 846 C. 20.3 Sorting Algorithms 850 1. 20.3.1 Insertion Sort 851 2. 20.3.2 Selection Sort 853 3. 20.3.3 Merge Sort (A Recursive Implementation) 855 D. 20.4 Wrap-Up 862 21. 21 Class

string

and String Stream Processing: A Deeper

Look 869 A. 21.1 Introduction 870 B. 21.2 string Assignment and Concatenation 871 C. 21.3 Comparing

string s

873

D. 21.4 Substrings 876 E. 21.5 Swapping string s 876 F. 21.6

string

Characteristics 877

G. 21.7 Finding Substrings and Characters in a 880 H. 21.8 Replacing Characters in a

string

881

string

I. 21.9 Inserting Characters into a

string

J. 21.10 Conversion to Pointer-Based K. L. M. N.

883

char *

Strings 884

21.11 Iterators 886 21.12 String Stream Processing 887 21.13 C++11 Numeric Conversion Functions 890 21.14 Wrap-Up 892

22. 22 Bits, Characters, C Strings and

struct s

899

A. 22.1 Introduction 900 B. 22.2 Structure Definitions 900 C. 22.3 typedef and using 902 D. 22.4 Example: Card Shuffling and Dealing Simulation 902 E. 22.5 Bitwise Operators 905 F. 22.6 Bit Fields 914 G. 22.7 Character-Handling Library 918 H. 22.8 C String-Manipulation Functions 923 I. 22.9 C String-Conversion Functions 930 J. 22.10 Search Functions of the C String-Handling Library 935 K. 22.11 Memory Functions of the C String-Handling Library 939 L. 22.12 Wrap-Up 943 1. 2. 3. 4.

Chapters on the Web 959 A Operator Precedence and Associativity 961 B ASCII Character Set 963 C Fundamental Types 965

5. D Number Systems 967 A. D.1 Introduction 968 B. D.2 Abbreviating Binary Numbers as Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers 971 C. D.3 Converting Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers to Binary Numbers 972 D. D.4 Converting from Binary, Octal or Hexadecimal to Decimal 972 E. D.5 Converting from Decimal to Binary, Octal or Hexadecimal 973 F. D.6 Negative Binary Numbers: Two’s Complement Notation 975 6. E Preprocessor 981 A. E.1 Introduction 982 B. E.2 #include Preprocessing Directive 982 C. E.3

#define

Preprocessing Directive: Symbolic

Constants 983 D. E.4 #define Preprocessing Directive: Macros 983 E. E.5 Conditional Compilation 985 F. E.6 #error and #pragma Preprocessing Directives 987 G. H. I. J.

E.7 Operators # and ## 987 E.8 Predefined Symbolic Constants 987 E.9 Assertions 988 E.10 Wrap-Up 988

7. Appendices on the Web 993 8. Index 995

9. Chapters 23–26 and Appendices F–J are PDF documents posted online at the book’s Companion Website, which is accessible from

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/deitel

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

See the inside front cover for more information. 23 Other Topics 24 C++11 and C++14: Additional Features 25 ATM Case Study, Part 1: Object-Oriented Design with the UM 26 ATM Case Study, Part 2: Implementing an ObjectOriented Design F C Legacy Code Topics G UML: Additional Diagram Types H Using the Visual Studio Debugger I Using the GNU C++ Debugger J Using the Xcode Debugger

Preface Welcome to the C++ computer programming language and C++ How to Program, Tenth Edition. We believe that this book and its support materials will give you an informative, challenging and entertaining introduction to C++. The book presents leading-edge computing technologies in a friendly manner appropriate for introductory college course sequences, based on the curriculum recommendations of two key professional organizations—the ACM and the IEEE.1 1. Computer Science Curricula 2013 Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Computer Science, December 20, 2013, The Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), IEEE Computer Society.

If you haven’t already done so, please read the back cover and check out the additional reviewer comments on the inside back cover and the facing page—these capture the essence of the book concisely. In this Preface we provide more detail for students, instructors and professionals. At the heart of the book is the Deitel signature live-code approach— we present most concepts in the context of complete working programs followed by sample executions, rather than in code snippets. Read the Before You Begin section to learn how to set up

your Linux-based, Windows-based or Apple OS X-based computer to run the hundreds of code examples. All the source code is available at

http://www.deitel.com/books/cpphtp10

and

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/deitel

Use the source code we provide to run each program as you study it.

Contacting the Authors As you read the book, if you have questions, we’re easy to reach at

[emailprotected]

We’ll respond promptly. For book updates, visit

http://www.deitel.com/books/cpphtp10

Join the Deitel & Associates, Inc. Social Media Communities Join the Deitel social media communities on Facebook®— http://facebook.com/DeitelFan LinkedIn®— http://bit.ly/DeitelLinkedIn Twitter®— http://twitter.com/deitel Google+™— http://google.com/+DeitelFan YouTube®— http://youtube.com/DeitelTV and subscribe to the Deitel® Buzz Online newsletter

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The C++11 and C++14 Standards These are exciting times in the programming languages community with each of the major languages striving to keep pace with compelling new programming technologies. In the three decades of C++’s development prior to 2011, only a few new versions of the language were released. Now the ISO C++ Standards Committee is committed to releasing a new standard every three years and the compiler vendors are building in the new features promptly. C++ How to Program, 10/e is based on the C++11 and C++14 standards published in 2011 and 2014, respectively. C++17 is already under active development. Throughout the book, C++11 and C++14 features are marked with the “11” and “14” icons, respectively, that you see here in the margin. Fig. 1 lists the book’s first references to the 77 C++11 and C++14 features we discuss. 11 14

Fig. 1 First references to C++11 and C++14 features in C++ How to Program, 10/e. C++11 and C++14 features in C++ How to Program, 10/e Chapter 3 In-class initializers

Chapter 4 Keywords new in C++11 Chapter 5 long long int type Chapter 6 Non-deterministic random number generation Scoped enum s Specifying the type of an enum 's constants Unsigned long long int Using ' to separate groups of digits in a numeric literals (C++14) Chapter 7 array container auto for type inference List initializing a vector Range-based for statement Chapter 8 begin / end functions nullptr Chapter 9 Delegating constructors Chapter 10

delete d member functions explicit conversion operators List initializing a dynamically allocated array List initializers in constructor calls string object literals (C++14) Chapter 11 final classes final member functions Inheriting base-class constructors Chapter 12 default ed member functions override keyword Chapter 13 operator bool for streams Chapter 14 quoted stream manipulator (C++14) string objects for file names Chapter 15 cbegin / cend container member functions Compiler fix for >> in template types crbegin / crend container member functions forward_list container Global functions cbegin / cend , rbegin / rend and crbegin / crend (C++14) Heterogeneous lookup in associative containers (C++14)

Immutable keys in associative containers insert container member functions return iterators Key–value pair list initialization List initialization of pair s Return value list initialization shrink_to_fit vector / deque member function Chapter 16 all_of algorithm any_of algorithm copy_if algorithm copy_n algorithm equal algorithm that accepts two ranges (C++14) find_if_not algorithm Generic lambdas (C++14) Lambda expressions min and max algorithms with initializer_list parameters minmax algorithm minmax_element algorithm mismatch algorithm that accepts two ranges (C++14) none_of algorithm random_shuffle is deprecated (C++14)—replaced with shuffle swap non-member function Chapter 17 make_unique to create a unique_ptr (C++14) noexcept unique_ptr smart pointer Chapter 18

Default type arguments in function templates Chapter 21 Numeric conversion functions Chapter 22 Binary literals (C++14) Chapter 24 Aggregate member initialization (C++14) auto and decltype(auto) on return types (C++14) constexpr updated (C++14) decltype move algorithm Move assignment operators move_backward algorithm Move constructors Regular expressions Rvalue references shared_ptr smart pointer static_assert objects for file names Trailing return types for functions tuple variadic template tuple addressing via type (C++14) weak_ptr smart pointer

Key Features of C++ How to Program, 10/e Conforms to the C++11 standard and the new C++14 standard. Code thoroughly tested on three popular industrial-strength C++14 compilers. We tested the code examples on GNU™ C++ 5.2.1, Microsoft® Visual Studio 2015 Community edition and Apple® ®

Clang/LLVM in Xcode® 7. Smart pointers. Smart pointers help you avoid dynamic memory management errors by providing additional functionality beyond that of built-in pointers. We discuss unique_ptr in Chapter 17, and shared_ptr

and

weak_ptr

in Chapter 24.

Early coverage of Standard Library containers, iterators and algorithms, enhanced with C++11 and C++14 capabilities. The treatment of Standard Library containers, iterators and algorithms in Chapters 15 and 16 has been enhanced with additional C++11 and C++14 features. The vast majority of your data structure needs can be fulfilled by reusing these Standard Library capabilities. We’ll show you how to build your own custom data structures in Chapter 19. Online Chapter 24, C++11 and C++14 Additional Topics. This chapter includes discussions of regular expressions, shared_ptr and

weak_ptr

smart pointers, move semantics, multithreading,

tuple s, decltype , constexpr

and more (see Fig. 1).

Random-number generation, simulation and game playing. To help make programs more secure, we include a treatment of C++11’s non-deterministic random-number generation capabilities. Pointers. We provide thorough coverage of the built-in pointer capabilities and the intimate relationship among built-in pointers, C strings and built-in arrays. Visual presentation of searching and sorting, with a simple explanation of Big O. Printed book contains core content; additional content is online. Several online chapters and appendices are included. These are available in searchable PDF format on the book’s passwordprotected Companion Website—see the access card information on the inside front cover. Getting Started Videos. At http://www.deitel.com/books/cpphtp10 , we provide links to our getting-started videos that help readers begin using Microsoft Visual Studio 2015 Community edition on Windows, Apple Xcode on OS X and GNU C++ on Linux. Debugger appendices. On the book’s Companion Website we provide Appendix H, Using the Visual Studio Debugger, Appendix I, Using the GNU C++ Debugger and Appendix J, Using the Xcode Debugger.

New in This Edition Discussions of the new C++14 capabilities. Further integration of C++11 capabilities into the code examples, because the latest compilers are now supporting these features. Uniform initialization with list initializer syntax. Always using braces in control statements, even for singlestatement bodies:

if (condition) { single-statement or multi-statement body }

Replaced the

Gradebook

class with

Account , Student

and

DollarAmount

class case studies in Chapters 3, 4 and 5,

respectively.

DollarAmount

processes monetary amounts precisely

for business applications. C++14 digit separators in large numeric literals. Type &x is now Type & x in accordance with industry idiom. Type

*x

is now Type *

Using C++11 scoped

x

in accordance with industry idiom.

enum s

rather than traditional C

enum s.

We brought our terminology in line with the C++ standard. Key terms in summaries now appear in bold for easy reference.

Removed extra spaces inside Replaced most

print

[] , () ,

and

member functions with

{}

delimiters.

toString

member

functions to make classes more flexible—for example, returning a string gives the client code the option of displaying it on the screen, writing it to a file, concatenating it with other Now using

ostringstream

the

representations of a

string

to create formatted Time ,

string s,

string s

etc.

for items like

rather than outputting

formatted data directly to the standard output. For simplicity, we deferred using the three-file architecture from Chapter 3 to Chapter 9, so all early class examples define the entire class in a header. We reimplement Chapter 10’s Array class operator-overloading example with

unique_ptr s

in Chapter 24. Using raw pointers and

dynamic-memory allocation with

new

and

delete

is a source of

subtle programming errors, especially “memory leaks”— unique_ptr and the other smart pointer types help prevent such errors. Using lambdas rather than function pointers in Chapter 16, Standard Library Algorithms. This will get readers comfortable with lambdas, which can be combined with various Standard Library algorithms to perform functional programming in C++. We’re planning a more in-depth treatment of functional programming for C++ How to Program, 11/e. Enhanced Chapter 24 with additional C++14 features.

Object-Oriented Programming Early-objects approach. The book introduces the basic concepts and terminology of object technology in Chapter 1. You’ll develop your first customized classes and objects in Chapter 3. We worked hard to make this chapter especially accessible to novices. Presenting objects and classes early gets you “thinking about objects” immediately and mastering these concepts more thoroughly.2 2. For courses that require a late-objects approach, consider our pre-C++11 book C++ How to Program, Late Objects Version, which begins with six chapters on programming fundamentals (including two on control statements) and continues with seven chapters that gradually introduce object-oriented programming concepts. C++ Standard Library

string.

C++ offers two types of strings

— string class objects (which we begin using in Chapter 3) and Cstyle pointer-based strings. We’ve replaced most occurrences of C strings with instances of C++ class string to make programs more robust and eliminate many of the security problems of C strings. We continue to discuss C strings later in the book to prepare you for working with the legacy code in industry. In new development, you should favor string objects.

C++ Standard Library

array.

— array s and

(which we start using in Chapter 7) and C-

vector s

C++ offers three types of arrays

style, pointer-based arrays which we discuss in Chapter 8. Our primary treatment of arrays uses the Standard Library’s array and vector

class templates instead of built-in, C-style, pointer-based

arrays. We still cover built-in arrays because they remain useful in C++ and so that you’ll be able to read legacy code. In new development, you should favor class template array and vector objects. Crafting valuable classes. A key goal of this book is to prepare you to build valuable reusable classes. Chapter 10 begins with a testdrive of class template string so you can see an elegant use of operator overloading before you implement your own customized class with overloaded operators. In the Chapter 10 case study, you’ll build your own custom Array class, then in the Chapter 18 exercises you’ll convert it to a class template. You will have truly crafted valuable classes. Case studies in object-oriented programming. We provide several well-engineered real-world case studies, including the Account class in Chapter 3, in Chapter 5,

Student

GradeBook

Chapter 9, the

Employee

class in Chapter 4,

class in Chapter 7, the

DollarAmount Time

class

class in

class in Chapters 11–12 and more.

Optional case study: Using the UML to develop an object-oriented design and C++ implementation of an ATM. The UML™ (Unified Modeling Language™) is the industry-standard graphical language for modeling object-oriented systems. We introduce the UML in the early chapters. Online Chapters 25 and 26 include an optional

object-oriented design case study using the UML. We design and fully implement the software for a simple automated teller machine (ATM). We analyze a typical requirements document that specifies the system to be built. We determine the classes needed to implement that system, the attributes the classes need to have, the behaviors the classes need to exhibit and we specify how objects of the classes must interact with one another to meet the system requirements. From the design we produce a complete C++ implementation. Students often report that the case study helps them “tie it all together” and truly understand object orientation. Understanding how polymorphism works. Chapter 12 contains a detailed diagram and explanation of how C++ typically implements polymorphism, virtual functions and dynamic binding “under the hood.” Object-oriented exception handling. We integrate basic exception handling early in the book (Chapter 7). Instructors can easily pull more detailed material forward from Chapter 17, Exception Handling: A Deeper Look. Custom template-based data structures. We provide a rich multichapter treatment of data structures—see the Data Structures module in the chapter dependency chart (Fig. 5). Three programming paradigms. We discuss structured programming, object-oriented programming and generic programming.

Hundreds of Code Examples We include a broad range of example programs selected from computer science, information technology, business, simulation, game playing and other topics. The examples are accessible to students in novice-level and intermediate-level C++ courses (Fig. 2). Fig. 2 A sampling of the book’s examples. Examples Account class Array class case study Author class Bank account program Bar chart printing program BasePlusCommissionEmployee class Binary tree creation and traversal BinarySearch test program Card shuffling and dealing ClientData class CommissionEmployee class Comparing strings Compilation and linking process Compound interest calculations with for Converting string objects to C strings Counter-controlled repetition Dice game simulation DollarAmount class

Credit inquiry program Date class Downcasting and runtime type information Employee class explicit constructor fibonacci function fill algorithms Specializations of function template printArray generate algorithms GradeBook Class Initializing an array in a declaration Input from an istringstream object Iterative factorial solution Lambda expressions Linked list manipulation map class template Mathematical algorithms of the Standard Library maximum function template Merge sort program multiset class template new throwing bad_alloc on failure PhoneNumber class Poll analysis program Polymorphism demonstration Preincrementing and postincrementing priority_queue adapter class queue adapter class Random-access files Random number generation Recursive function factorial Rolling a six-sided die 60,000,000 times SalariedEmployee class SalesPerson class

Searching and sorting algorithms of the Standard Library Sequential files set class template shared_ptr program stack adapter class Stack class Stack unwinding Standard Library string class program Stream manipulator showbase string assignment and concatenation string member function substr Student class Summing integers with the for statement Time class unique_ptr object managing dynamically allocated memory Validating user input with regular expressions vector class template

Exercises Self-Review Exercises and Answers. Extensive self-review exercises and answers are included for self-study. Interesting, entertaining and challenging exercises. Each chapter concludes with a substantial set of exercises, including simple recall of important terminology and concepts, identifying the errors in code samples, writing individual program statements, writing small portions of C++ classes and member and non-member functions, writing complete programs and implementing major projects. Figure 3 lists a sampling of the book’s exercises, including our Making a Difference exercises, which encourage you to use computers and the Internet to research and work on significant social problems. We hope you’ll approach these exercises with your own values, politics and beliefs. Fig. 3 A sampling of the book’s exercises. Exercises Airline Reservations System Advanced String-Manipulation Bubble Sort Building Your Own Compiler Building Your Own Computer Calculating Salaries CarbonFootprint Abstract Class: Polymorphism Card Shuffling and Dealing

Computer-Assisted Instruction Computer-Assisted Instruction: Difficulty Levels Computer-Assisted Instruction: Monitoring Student Performance Computer-Assisted Instruction: Reducing Student Fatigue Computer-Assisted Instruction: Varying the Types of Problems Cooking with Healthier Ingredients Craps Game Modification Credit Limits Crossword Puzzle Generator Cryptograms De Morgan’s Laws Dice Rolling Eight Queens Emergency Response Enforcing Privacy with Cryptography Facebook User Base Growth Fibonacci Series Gas Mileage Global Warming Facts Quiz Guess the Number Game Hangman Game Health Records Knight’s Tour Limericks Maze Traversal: Generating Mazes Randomly Morse Code Payroll System Modification Peter Minuit Problem Phishing Scanner Pig Latin Polymorphic Banking Program Using Account Hierarchy Pythagorean Triples Salary Calculator Sieve of Eratosthenes

Simple Decryption Simple Encryption SMS Language Spam Scanner Spelling Checker Target-Heart-Rate Calculator Tax Plan Alternatives; The “Fair Tax” Telephone number word generator “The Twelve Days of Christmas” Song Tortoise and the Hare Simulation Towers of Hanoi World Population Growth

Illustrations and Figures Abundant tables, line drawings, UML diagrams, programs and program outputs are included. A sampling of the book’s drawings and diagrams is shown in (Fig. 4). Fig. 4 A sampling of the book’s drawings and diagrams. Drawings and diagrams Main text drawings and diagrams Account class diagrams Data hierarchy Multiple-source-file compilation and linking Order in which a second-degree polynomial is evaluated if single-selection statement activity diagram if … else double-selection statement activity diagram while repetition statement UML activity diagram for repetition statement UML activity diagram do … while repetition statement UML activity diagram switch multiple-selection statement activity diagram C++’s single-entry/single-exit control statements Pass-by-value and pass-by-reference analysis Inheritance hierarchy diagrams Function-call stack and activation records Recursive calls to function fibonacci Pointer arithmetic diagrams CommunityMember Inheritance hierarchy Shape inheritance hierarchy

public , protected and private inheritance Employee hierarchy UML class diagram How virtual function calls work Two self-referential class objects linked together Graphical representation of a list Operation insertAtFront represented graphically Operation insertAtBack represented graphically Operation removeFromFront represented graphically Operation removeFromBack represented graphically Circular, singly linked list Doubly linked list Circular, doubly linked list Graphical representation of a binary tree

(Optional) ATM Case Study drawings and diagrams Use case diagram for the ATM system from the User’s perspective Class diagram showing an association among classes Class diagram showing composition relationships Class diagram for the ATM system model Classes with attributes State diagram for the ATM Activity diagram for a BalanceInquiry transaction Activity diagram for a Withdrawal transaction Classes in the ATM system with attributes and operations Communication diagram of the ATM executing a balance inquiry Communication diagram for executing a balance inquiry Sequence diagram that models a Withdrawal executing Use case diagram for a modified version of our ATM system that also allows users to transfer money between accounts Class diagram showing composition relationships of a class Car Class diagram for the ATM system model including class Deposit

Activity diagram for a Deposit transaction Sequence diagram that models a Deposit executing

Dependency Chart C++ How to Program, 10/e is appropriate for most introductory oneand-two-course programming sequences, often called CS1 and CS2. The chart in Fig. 5 shows the dependencies among the chapters to help instructors plan their syllabi. The chart shows the book’s modular organization.

Teaching Approach C++ How to Program, 10/e, contains a rich collection of examples. We stress program clarity and concentrate on building well-engineered software. Live-code approach. The book is loaded with “live-code” examples— most new concepts are presented in complete working C++ applications, followed by one or more executions showing program inputs and outputs. Rich early coverage of C++ fundamentals. Chapter 2 provides a friendly introduction to C++ programming. We include in Chapters 4 and 5 a clear treatment of control statements and algorithm development.

Fig. 5 Chapter Dependency Chart Syntax coloring. For readability, we syntax color all the C++ code, similar to the way most C++ integrated-development environments and code editors syntax color code. Our coloring conventions are as follows:

comments appear like this keywords appear like this constants and literal values appear like this all other code appears in black

Code highlighting. We place shaded rectangles around the new features in each program. Using fonts for emphasis. We color the defining occurrence of each key term in bold colored text for easy reference. We emphasize onscreen components in the bold Helvetica font (e.g., the File menu) and C++ program text in the Lucida font (for example, int x = 5; ). Objectives. We clearly state the chapter objectives. Programming tips. We include programming tips to help you focus on key aspects of program development. These tips and practices

represent the best we’ve gleaned from a combined eight decades of teaching and industry experience.

Good Programming Practices The Good Programming Practices call attention to techniques that will help you produce programs that are clearer, more understandable and more maintainable.

Common Programming Errors Pointing out these Common Programming Errors reduces the likelihood that you’ll make them.

Error-Prevention Tips These tips contain suggestions for exposing and removing bugs from your programs; many describe aspects of C++ that prevent bugs from getting into programs in the first place.

Performance Tips These tips highlight opportunities for making your programs run faster or minimizing the amount of memory that they occupy.

Portability Tips These tips help you write code that will run on a variety of platforms.

Software Engineering Observations These tips highlight architectural and design issues that affect the construction of software systems, especially large-scale systems. Summary Bullets. We present a section-by-section, bullet-list summary of each chapter. Each key term is in bold followed by the page number of the term’s defining occurrence. Index. For convenient reference, we’ve included an extensive index, with defining occurrences of key terms highlighted with a bold page number.

Secure C++ Programming It’s difficult to build industrial-strength systems that stand up to attacks from viruses, worms, and other forms of “malware.” Today, via the Internet, such attacks can be instantaneous and global in scope. Building security into software from the beginning of the development cycle can greatly reduce vulnerabilities. The CERT® Coordination Center ( www.cert.org ) was created to analyze and respond promptly to attacks. CERT—the Computer Emergency Response Team—is a government-funded organization within the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute™. CERT publishes and promotes secure coding standards for various popular programming languages to help software developers implement industrial-strength systems which avoid the programming practices that leave systems open to attacks. We’d like to thank Robert C. Seacord, an adjunct professor in the Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science and former Secure Coding Manager at CERT. Mr. Seacord was a technical reviewer for our book, C How to Program, 7/e, where he scrutinized our C programs from a security standpoint, recommending that we adhere to key guidelines of the CERT C Secure Coding Standard. We’ve done the same for C++ How to Program, 10/e, adhering to key guidelines of the CERT C++ Secure Coding Standard, which you can

find at:

http://www.securecoding.cert.org

We were pleased to discover that we’ve already been recommending many of these coding practices in our books since the early 1990s. We upgraded our code and discussions to conform to these practices, as appropriate for an introductory/intermediate-level textbook. If you’ll be building industrial-strength C++ systems, consider reading Secure Coding in C and C++, Second Edition (Robert Seacord, AddisonWesley Professional, 2013).

Online Chapters, Appendices and Other Content The book’s Companion Website, which is accessible at

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/deitel

(see the inside front cover for your access key) contains the following videos as well as chapters and appendices in searchable PDF format: VideoNotes—The Companion Website (see the inside front cover for your access key) also includes extensive videos. Watch and listen as co-author Paul Deitel discusses in-depth the key code examples from the book’s core programming-fundamentals and object-oriented-programming chapters. Chapter 23, Other Topics Chapter 24, C++11 and C++14 Additional Topics Chapter 25, ATM Case Study, Part 1: Object-Oriented Design with the UML Chapter 26, ATM Case Study, Part 2: Implementing an ObjectOriented Design Appendix F, C Legacy Code Topics

Appendix G, UML: Additional Diagram Types Appendix H, Using the Visual Studio Debugger Appendix I, Using the GNU C++ Debugger Appendix J, Using the Xcode Debugger Building Your Own Compiler exercise descriptions from Chapter 19 (posted at the Companion Website and at http:// www.deitel.com/books/cpphtp10 ).

Obtaining the Software Used in C++ How to Program, 10/e We wrote the code examples in C++ How to Program, 10/e using the following free C++ development tools: Microsoft’s free Visual Studio Community 2015 edition, which includes Visual C++ and other Microsoft development tools. This runs on Windows and is available for download at

https://www.visualstudio.com/products/visual-studio-communityvs

GNU’s free GNU C++ 5.2.1. GNU C++ is already installed on most Linux systems and can also be installed on Mac OS X and Windows systems. There are many versions of Linux—known as Linux distributions—that use different techniques for performing software upgrades. Check your distribution’s online documentation for information on how to upgrade GNU C++ to the latest version. GNU C++ is available at

http://gcc.gnu.org/install/binaries.html

Apple’s free Xcode, which OS X users can download from the Mac App Store— click the app’s icon in the dock at the bottom of your screen, then search for Xcode in the app store.

Instructor Supplements The following supplements are available to qualified instructors only through Pearson Education’s Instructor Resource Center ( http:// www.pearsonhighered.com/irc ):

Solutions Manual contains solutions to most of the end-of-chapter exercises. We include Making a Difference exercises, many with solutions. Please do not write to us requesting access to the Pearson Instructor’s Resource Center. Access is restricted to college instructors teaching from the book. Instructors may obtain access only through their Pearson representatives. If you’re not a registered faculty member, contact your Pearson representative or visit

http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/replocator/

Solutions are not provided for “project” exercises. Check out our Programming Projects Resource Center for lots of additional exercise and project possibilities.

http://www.deitel.com/ProgrammingProjects

Test Item File of multiple-choice questions. Customizable PowerPoint® slides containing all the code and figures in the text, plus bulleted items that summarize key points in the text.

Online Practice and Assessment with MyProgrammingLab™ MyProgrammingLab™ helps students fully grasp the logic, semantics, and syntax of programming. Through practice exercises and immediate, personalized feedback, MyProgrammingLab improves the programming competence of beginning students who often struggle with the basic concepts and paradigms of popular high-level programming languages. An optional self-study and homework tool, a MyProgrammingLab course consists of hundreds of small practice problems organized around the structure of this textbook. For students, the system automatically detects errors in the logic and syntax of their code submissions and offers targeted hints that enable students to figure out what went wrong— and why. For instructors, a comprehensive gradebook tracks correct and incorrect answers and stores the code inputted by students for review. For a full demonstration, to see feedback from instructors and students or to get started using MyProgrammingLab in your course, visit

http://www.myprogramminglab.com

Acknowledgments We’d like to thank Barbara Deitel of Deitel & Associates, Inc. for long hours devoted to this project. She painstakingly researched the new capabilities of C++11 and C++14. We’re fortunate to have worked with the dedicated team of publishing professionals at Pearson Higher Education. We appreciate the guidance, wisdom and energy of Tracy Johnson, Executive Editor, Computer Science. Kristy Alaura did an extraordinary job recruiting the book’s reviewers and managing the review process. Bob Engelhardt did a wonderful job bringing the book to publication. Finally, thanks to Abbey Deitel, former President of Deitel & Associates, Inc., and a graduate of Carnegie Mellon University’s Tepper School of Management where she received a B.S. in Industrial Management. Abbey managed the business operations of Deitel & Associates, Inc. for 17 years, along the way co-authoring a number of our publications, including the previous C++ How to Program editions’ versions of Chapter 1.

Reviewers We wish to acknowledge the efforts of our reviewers. Over its ten editions, the book has been scrutinized by academics teaching C++

courses, current and former members of the C++ standards committee and industry experts using C++ to build industrial-strength, high-performance systems. They provided countless suggestions for improving the presentation. Any remaining flaws in the book are our own. Tenth Edition reviewers: Chris Aburime, Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System; Gašper Ažman, A9.com Search Technologies and Co-Author of C++ Today: The Beast is Back; Danny Kalev, Intel and Former Member of the C++ Standards Committee; Renato Golin, LLVM Tech Lead at Linaro and Co-Owner for the ARM Target in LLVM; Gordon Hogenson, Microsoft, Author of Foundations of C++/CLI: The Visual C++ Language for .NET 3; Jonathan Wakely, Redhat, ISO C++ Committee Secretary; José Antonio González Seco, Parliament of Andalusia; Dean Michael Berris, Google, Maintainer of cpp-netlib and Former ISO C++ Committee Member. Ninth Edition post-publication academic reviewers: Stefano Basagni, Northeastern University; Amr Elkady, Diablo Valley College; Chris Aburime, Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System. Other recent edition reviewers: Virginia Bailey (Jackson State University), Ed James-Beckham (Borland), Thomas J. Borrelli (Rochester Institute of Technology), Ed Brey (Kohler Co.), Chris Cox (Adobe Systems), Gregory Dai (eBay), Peter J. DePasquale (The College of New Jersey), John Dibling (SpryWare), Susan Gauch (University of Arkansas), Doug Gregor (Apple, Inc.), Jack Hagemeister (Washington State University), Williams M. Higdon (University of

Indiana), Anne B. Horton (Lockheed Martin), Terrell Hull (Logicalis Integration Solutions), Linda M. Krause (Elmhurst College), Wing-Ning Li (University of Arkansas), Dean Mathias (Utah State University), Robert A. McLain (Tide-water Community College), James P. McNellis (Microsoft Corporation), Robert Myers (Florida State University), Gavin Osborne (Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology), Amar Raheja (California State Polytechnic University, Pomona), April Reagan (Microsoft), Robert C. Seacord (Secure Coding Manager at SEI/CERT, author of Secure Coding in C and C++), Raymond Stephenson (Microsoft), Dave Topham (Ohlone College), Anthony Williams (author and C++ Standards Committee member) and Chad Willwerth (University Washington, Tacoma). As you read the book, we’d sincerely appreciate your comments, criticisms and suggestions for improving the text. Please address all correspondence to:

[emailprotected]

We’ll respond promptly. We enjoyed writing C++ How to Program, Tenth Edition. We hope you enjoy reading it! Paul Deitel Harvey Deitel

About the Authors Paul Deitel, CEO and Chief Technical Officer of Deitel & Associates, Inc., has over 30 years of experience in computing. He is a graduate of MIT, where he studied Information Technology. He holds the Java Certified Programmer and Java Certified Developer designations and is an Oracle Java Champion. Paul was also named as a Microsoft® Most Valuable Professional (MVP) for C# in 2012–2014. Through Deitel & Associates, Inc., he has delivered hundreds of programming courses worldwide to clients, including Cisco, IBM, Siemens, Sun Microsystems, Dell, Fidelity, NASA at the Kennedy Space Center, the National Severe Storm Laboratory, White Sands Missile Range, Rogue Wave Software, Boeing, SunGard, Nortel Networks, Puma, iRobot, Invensys and many more. He and his co-author, Dr. Harvey Deitel, are the world’s best-selling programming-language textbook/professional book/video authors. Dr. Harvey Deitel, Chairman and Chief Strategy Officer of Deitel & Associates, Inc., has over 50 years of experience in the computer field. Dr. Deitel earned B.S. and M.S. degrees in Electrical Engineering from MIT and a Ph.D. in Mathematics from Boston University—he studied computing in each of these programs before they spun off Computer Science programs. He has extensive college teaching experience, including earning tenure and serving as the Chairman of the Computer Science Department at Boston College before founding Deitel & Associates, Inc., in 1991 with his son, Paul.

The Deitels’ publications have earned international recognition, with translations published in Japanese, German, Russian, Spanish, French, Polish, Italian, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Korean, Portuguese, Greek, Urdu and Turkish. Dr. Deitel has delivered hundreds of programming courses to academic, corporate, government and military clients.

About Deitel & Associates, Inc. Deitel & Associates, Inc., founded by Paul Deitel and Harvey Deitel, is an internationally recognized authoring and corporate training organization, specializing in computer programming languages, object technology, Internet and web software technology, and Android and iOS app development. The company’s clients include academic institutions, many of the world’s largest corporations, government agencies and branches of the military. The company offers instructorled training courses delivered at client sites worldwide on major programming languages and platforms, including C++, C, Java™, Android app development, iOS app development, Swift™, Visual C#®, Visual Basic®, Internet and web programming and a growing list of additional programming and software-development courses. Through its 40-year publishing partnership with Prentice Hall/Pearson, Deitel & Associates, Inc., publishes leading-edge programming college textbooks, professional books and LiveLessons video courses. Deitel & Associates, Inc. and the authors can be reached at:

[emailprotected]

To learn more about Deitel’s corporate training curriculum, visit

http://www.deitel.com/training

To request a proposal for worldwide on-site, instructor-led training at your organization, send an e-mail to [emailprotected] . Individuals wishing to purchase Deitel books can do so via

http://bit.ly/DeitelOnAmazon

Individuals wishing to purchase Deitel LiveLessons video training can do so at:

http://bit.ly/DeitelOnInformit

All Deitel books and LiveLessons videos are also available electronically to Safari Books Online subscribers at:

http://SafariBooksOnline.com

You can get a free 10-day Safari Books Online trial at:

https://www.safaribooksonline.com/register/

Bulk orders by corporations, the government, the military and academic institutions should be placed directly with Pearson. For more information, visit

http://www.informit.com/store/sales.aspx

Before You Begin This section contains information you should review before using this book and instructions to ensure that your computer is set up properly to compile the example programs.

Font and Naming Conventions We use fonts to distinguish between features, such as menu names, menu items, and other elements that appear in your IDE (Integrated Development Environment), such as Microsoft’s Visual Studio. Our convention is to emphasize IDE features in a sans-serif bold Helvetica font (for example, File menu) and to emphasize program text in a sans-serif Lucida font (for example, bool x = true; ).

Obtaining the Software Used in C++ How to Program, 10/e Before reading this book, you should download and install a C++ compiler. We wrote C++ How to Program, 10/e’s code examples using the following free C++ development tools:

Microsoft’s free Visual Studio Community 2015 edition, which includes the Visual C++ compiler and other Microsoft development tools. This runs on Windows and is available for download at

https://www.visualstudio.com/products/visual-studio-communityvs

GNU’s free GNU C++ 5.2.1 compiler. GNU C++ is already installed on most Linux systems and also can be installed on Mac OS X and Windows systems. There are many versions of Linux, known as Linux distributions, that use different techniques for performing software upgrades. Check your distribution’s online documentation for information on how to upgrade GNU C++ to the latest version. GNU C++ is available at

http://gcc.gnu.org/install/binaries.html

Apple’s free Xcode, which OS X users can download from the Mac App Store— click the app’s icon in the dock at the bottom of your Mac screen, then search for Xcode in the app store. We also provide links to our getting-started videos for each of these C++ tools at:

http://www.deitel.com/books/cpphtp10

Obtaining the Code Examples The examples for C++ How to Program, 10/e are available for download at

http://www.deitel.com/books/cpphtp10

Click the Download Code Examples link to download the ZIP archive file to your computer. Write down the location where you saved the file —most browsers will save the file into your user account’s Downloads folder. Throughout the book, steps that require you to access our example code on your computer assume that you’ve extracted the examples from the ZIP file and placed them in C:\examples on Windows or in your user account’s

Documents

directory on other platforms. You can

extract them anywhere you like, but if you choose a different location, you’ll need to update our steps accordingly.

Creating Projects

In Section 1.10, we demonstrate how to compile and run programs with Microsoft Visual Studio Community 2015 edition on Windows (Section 1.10.1) GNU C++ 5.2.1 on Linux (Section 1.10.2) Apple Xcode on OS X (Section 1.10.3) For GNU C++ and Xcode, you must compile your programs with C++14. To do so in GNU C++, include the option -std=c++14 when you compile your code, as in:

g++ -std=c++14 YourFileName.cpp

For Xcode, after following Section 1.10.3’s steps to create a project: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Select the root node at the top of the Xcode Project navigator. Click the Build Settings tab in the Editors area. Scroll down to the Apple LLVM 7.0 - Language - C++ section. For the C++ Language Dialect option, select C++14 [– std=c++14].

Getting Your C++ Questions

Answered As you read the book, if you have questions, we’re easy to reach at

[emailprotected]

We’ll respond promptly. In addition, the web is loaded with programming information. An invaluable resource for nonprogrammers and programmers alike is the website

http://stackoverflow.com

on which you can: Search for answers to most common programming questions Search for error messages to see what causes them Ask programming questions to get answers from programmers worldwide Gain valuable insights about programming in general

Online C++ Documentation For documentation on the C++ Standard Library, visit

http://cppreference.com

and be sure to check out the C++ FAQ at

https://isocpp.org/faq

1 Introduction to Computers and C++

Objectives In this chapter you’ll learn: Exciting recent developments in the computer field. Computer hardware, software and networking basics. The data hierarchy. The different types of programming languages. Basic object-technology concepts. Some basics of the Internet and the World Wide Web. A typical C++ program development environment. To test-drive a C++ application. Some key recent software technologies. How computers can help you make a difference.

Outline 1. 1.1 Introduction 2. 1.2 Computers and the Internet in Industry and Research 3. 1.3 Hardware and Software A. 1.3.1 Moore’s Law B. 1.3.2 Computer Organization 4. 1.4 Data Hierarchy 5. 1.5 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages and HighLevel Languages 6. 1.6 C and C++ 7. 1.7 Programming Languages 8. 1.8 Introduction to Object Technology 9. 1.9 Typical C++ Development Environment 10. 1.10 Test-Driving a C++ Application A. 1.10.1 Compiling and Running an Application in Visual Studio 2015 for Windows B. 1.10.2 Compiling and Running Using GNU C++ on Linux C. 1.10.3 Compiling and Running with Xcode on Mac OS X 11. 1.11 Operating Systems A. 1.11.1 Windows—A Proprietary Operating System B. 1.11.2 Linux—An Open-Source Operating System ®

®

C. 1.11.3 Apple’s OS X; Apple’s iOS for iPhone®, iPad® and iPod Touch® Devices D. 1.11.4 Google’s Android 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.12 The Internet and the World Wide Web 1.13 Some Key Software Development Terminology 1.14 C++11 and C++14: The Latest C++ Versions 1.15 Boost C++ Libraries 1.16 Keeping Up to Date with Information Technologies Self-Review Exercises Answers to Self-Review Exercises Exercises Making a Difference Making a Difference Resources

1.1 Introduction Welcome to C++—a powerful computer programming language that’s appropriate for technically oriented people with little or no programming experience, and for experienced programmers to use in building substantial information systems. You’re already familiar with the powerful tasks computers perform. Using this textbook, you’ll write instructions commanding computers to perform those kinds of tasks. Software (i.e., the instructions you write) controls hardware (i.e., computers). You’ll learn object-oriented programming—today’s key programming methodology. You’ll create many software objects that model things in the real world. C++ is one of today’s most popular software development languages. This text provides an introduction to programming in C++11 and C++14—the latest versions standardized through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). 11

14

As of 2008 there were more than a billion general-purpose computers in use. Today, various websites say that number is approximately two billion, and according to the real-time tracker at gsmaintelligence.com , there are now more mobile devices than there are people in the world. According to the International Data Corporation (IDC), the number of mobile Internet users will top two billion in 2016.1 Smartphone sales surpassed personal computer sales in 2011.2 Tablet sales were expected to overtake personal-computer sales by 2015.3 By 2017, the smartphone/tablet app market is expected to exceed $77 billion.4 This explosive growth is creating significant opportunities for programming mobile applications. 1.

https://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS40855515 .

2.

http://www.mashable.com/2012/02/03/smartphone-sales-overtake-

pcs/.

3.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/louiscolumbus/2014/07/18/gartner-

forecasts-tablet-shipments-will-overtake-pcs-in-2015/ .

4.

http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/236832.

1.2 Computers and the Internet in Industry and Research These are exciting times in the computer field. Many of the most influential and successful businesses of the last two decades are technology companies, including Apple, IBM, Hewlett Packard, Dell, Intel, Motorola, Cisco, Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Facebook, Twitter, eBay and many more. These companies are major employers of people who study computer science, computer engineering, information systems or related disciplines. At the time of this writing, Apple was the most valuable company in the world. Figure 1.1 provides a few examples of the ways in which computers are improving people’s lives in research, industry and society. Fig. 1.1 A few uses for computers. Name

Description

Electronic

These might include a patient’s medical history, prescriptions,

health

immunizations, lab results, allergies, insurance information and more.

records

Making this information available to health care providers across a secure network improves patient care, reduces the probability of error and increases overall efficiency of the health-care system, helping control costs.

Human

The Human Genome Project was founded to identify and analyze the

Genome

20,000+ genes in human DNA. The project used computer programs to

Project

analyze complex genetic data, determine the sequences of the billions of

chemical base pairs that make up human DNA and store the information in databases which have been made available over the Internet to researchers in many fields. AMBER

The AMBER (America’s Missing: Broadcast Emergency Response) Alert

Alert

System is used to find abducted children. Law enforcement notifies TV and radio broadcasters and state transportation officials, who then broadcast alerts on TV, radio, computerized highway signs, the Internet and wireless devices. AMBER Alert recently partnered with Facebook, whose users can “Like” AMBER Alert pages by location to receive alerts in their news feeds.

World

People worldwide can donate their unused computer processing power

Community

by installing a free secure software program that allows the World

Grid

Community Grid ( http://www.worldcommunitygrid.org ) to harness unused capacity. This computing power, accessed over the Internet, is used in place of expensive supercomputers to conduct scientific research projects that are making a difference—providing clean water to third-world countries, fighting cancer, growing more nutritious rice for regions fighting hunger and more.

Cloud

Cloud computing allows you to use software, hardware and information

computing

stored in the “cloud”—i.e., accessed on remote computers via the Internet and available on demand—rather than having it stored on your personal computer. These services allow you to increase or decrease resources to meet your needs at any given time, so they can be more cost effective than purchasing expensive hardware to ensure that you have enough storage and processing power to meet your needs at their peak levels. Using cloud-computing services shifts the burden of managing these applications from the business to the service provider, saving businesses money.

Medical

X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, also called CAT (computerized

imaging

axial tomography) scans, take X-rays of the body from hundreds of different angles. Computers are used to adjust the intensity of the X-rays, optimizing the scan for each type of tissue, then to combine all of the information to create a 3D image. MRI scanners use a technique called magnetic resonance imaging, also to produce internal images noninvasively.

GPS

Global Positioning System (GPS) devices use a network of satellites to retrieve location-based information. Multiple satellites send time-stamped signals to the GPS device, which calculates the distance to each satellite, based on the time the signal left the satellite and the time the signal arrived. This information helps determine the device’s exact location. GPS devices can provide step-by-step directions and help you locate nearby businesses (restaurants, gas stations, etc.) and points of interest. GPS is used in numerous location-based Internet services such as check-in apps to help you find your friends (e.g., Foursquare and Facebook), exercise apps such as RunKeeper that track the time, distance and average speed of your outdoor jog, dating apps that help you find a match nearby and apps that dynamically update changing traffic conditions.

Robots

Robots can be used for day-to-day tasks (e.g., iRobot’s Roomba vacuuming robot), entertainment (e.g., robotic pets), military combat, deep sea and space exploration (e.g., NASA’s Mars rover Curiosity) and more. RoboEarth ( www.roboearth.org ) is “a World Wide Web for robots.” It allows robots to learn from each other by sharing information and thus improving their abilities to perform tasks, navigate, recognize objects and more.

E-mail,

Internet-based servers support all of your online messaging. E-mail

Instant

messages go through a mail server that also stores the messages.

Messaging,

Instant Messaging (IM) and Video Chat apps, such as Facebook

Video Chat

Messenger, AIM, Skype, Yahoo! Messenger, Google Hangouts, Trillian

and FTP

and others allow you to communicate with others in real time by sending

your messages and live video through servers. FTP (file transfer protocol) allows you to exchange files between multiple computers (for example, a client computer such as your desktop and a file server) over the Internet. Internet TV

Internet TV set-top boxes (such as Apple TV, Android TV, Roku and TiVo) allow you to access an enormous amount of content on demand, such as games, news, movies, television shows and more, and they help ensure that the content is streamed to your TV smoothly.

Streaming

Streaming music services (such as Apple Music, Pandora, Spotify,

music

Last.fm and more) allow you listen to large catalogues of music over the

services

web, create customized “radio stations” and discover new music based on your feedback.

Game

Global video-game revenues are expected to reach $107 billion by 2017

programming

( http://www.polygon.com/2015/4/22/8471789/ worldwide-video-games-market-value-2015 ). The most sophisticated games can cost over $100 million to develop, with the most expensive costing half a billion dollars ( http://www.gamespot.com/ gallery/20-of-the-most-expensive-games-ever-made/ 2900-104/ ). Bethesda’s Fallout 4 earned $750 million in its first day of sales ( http://fortune.com/2015/11/16/fallout4-isquiet-best-seller/ )!

1.3 Hardware and Software Computers can perform calculations and make logical decisions phenomenally faster than human beings can. Many of today’s personal computers can perform billions of calculations in one second —more than a human can perform in a lifetime. Supercomputers are already performing thousands of trillions (quadrillions) of instructions per second! China’s National University of Defense Technology’s Tianhe-2 supercomputer can perform over 33 quadrillion calculations per second (33.86 petaflops)!5 To put that in perspective, the Tianhe2 supercomputer can perform in one second about 3 million calculations for every person on the planet! And supercomputing “upper limits” are growing quickly. 5.

http://www.top500.org.

Computers process data under the control of sequences of instructions called computer programs. These programs guide the computer through ordered actions specified by people called computer programmers. The programs that run on a computer are referred to as software. In this book, you’ll learn a key programming methodology that’s enhancing programmer productivity, thereby reducing software development costs—object-oriented programming.

A computer consists of various devices referred to as hardware (e.g., the keyboard, screen, mouse, hard disks, memory, DVD drives and processing units). Computing costs are dropping dramatically, owing to rapid developments in hardware and software technologies. Computers that might have filled large rooms and cost millions of dollars decades ago are now inscribed on silicon chips smaller than a fingernail, costing perhaps a few dollars each. Ironically, silicon is one of the most abundant materials on Earth—it’s an ingredient in common sand. Silicon-chip technology has made computing so economical that computers have become a commodity.

1.3.1 Moore’s Law Every year, you probably expect to pay at least a little more for most products and services. The opposite has been the case in the computer and communications fields, especially with regard to the hardware supporting these technologies. For many decades, hardware costs have fallen rapidly. Every year or two, the capacities of computers have approximately doubled inexpensively. This remarkable trend often is called Moore’s Law, named for the person who identified it in the 1960s, Gordon Moore, co-founder of Intel—a leading manufacturer of the processors in today’s computers and embedded systems. Moore’s Law and related observations apply especially to the amount of memory that computers have for programs, the amount of secondary storage (such as disk storage) they have to hold programs and data over longer

periods of time, and their processor speeds—the speeds at which they execute their programs (i.e., do their work). These increases make computers more capable, which puts greater demands on programming-language designers to innovate. Similar growth has occurred in the communications field—costs have plummeted as enormous demand for communications bandwidth (i.e., information-carrying capacity) has attracted intense competition. We know of no other fields in which technology improves so quickly and costs fall so rapidly. Such phenomenal improvement is truly fostering the Information Revolution.

1.3.2 Computer Organization Regardless of differences in physical appearance, computers can be envisioned as divided into various logical units or sections (Fig. 1.2). Fig. 1.2 Logical units of a computer. Logical unit

Description

Input unit

This “receiving” section obtains information (data and computer programs) from input devices and places it at the disposal of the other units for processing. Most user input is entered into computers through keyboards, touch screens and mouse devices. Other forms of input include receiving voice commands, scanning images and barcodes, reading from secondary storage devices (such as hard drives, DVD drives, Blu-ray Disc™ drives and USB flash drives—also called “thumb drives” or “memory sticks”), receiving video from a webcam and having your computer receive

information from the Internet (such as when you stream videos from YouTube® or download e-books from Amazon). Newer forms of input include position data from a GPS device, and motion and orientation information from an accelerometer (a device that responds to up/down, left/right and forward/backward acceleration) in a smartphone or game controller (such as Microsoft® Kinect® for Xbox®, Wii™ Remote and Sony® PlayStation® Move). Output

This “shipping” section takes information the computer has processed and

unit

places it on various output devices to make it available for use outside the computer. Most information that’s output from computers today is displayed on screens (including touch screens), printed on paper (“going green” discourages this), played as audio or video on PCs and media players (such as Apple’s iPods) and giant screens in sports stadiums, transmitted over the Internet or used to control other devices, such as robots and “intelligent” appliances. Information is also commonly output to secondary storage devices, such as hard drives, DVD drives and USB flash drives. Popular recent forms of output are smartphone and game controller vibration, and virtual reality devices like Oculus Rift.

Memory

This rapid-access, relatively low-capacity “warehouse” section retains

unit

information that has been entered through the input unit, making it immediately available for processing when needed. The memory unit also retains processed information until it can be placed on output devices by the output unit. Information in the memory unit is volatile—it’s typically lost when the computer’s power is turned off. The memory unit is often called either memory, primary memory or RAM (Random Access Memory). Main memories on desktop and notebook computers contain as much as 128 GB of RAM, though 2 to 16 GB is most common. GB stands for gigabytes; a gigabyte is approximately one billion bytes. A byte is eight bits. A bit is either a 0 or a 1.

Arithmetic

This “manufacturing” section performs calculations, such as addition,

and logic

subtraction, multiplication and division. It also contains the decision

unit (ALU)

mechanisms that allow the computer, for example, to compare two items from the memory unit to determine whether they’re equal. In today’s systems, the ALU is implemented as part of the next logical unit, the CPU.

Central

This “administrative” section coordinates and supervises the operation of

processing

the other sections. The CPU tells the input unit when information should be

unit (CPU)

read into the memory unit, tells the ALU when information from the memory unit should be used in calculations and tells the output unit when to send information from the memory unit to certain output devices. Many of today’s computers have multiple CPUs and, hence, can perform many operations simultaneously. A multi-core processor implements multiple processors on a single integrated-circuit chip—a dual-core processor has two CPUs, a quad-core processor has four and an octa-core processor has eight. Today’s desktop computers have processors that can execute billions of instructions per second. To take full advantage of multi-core architecture you need to write multithreaded applications, which we introduce in Section 24.3.

Secondary

This is the long-term, high-capacity “warehousing” section. Programs or

storage

data not actively being used by the other units normally are placed on

unit

secondary storage devices (e.g., your hard drive) until they’re again needed, possibly hours, days, months or even years later. Information on secondary storage devices is persistent—it’s preserved even when the computer’s power is turned off. Secondary storage information takes much longer to access than information in primary memory, but its cost per unit is much less. Examples of secondary storage devices include hard drives, DVD drives and USB flash drives, some of which can hold over 2 TB (TB stands for terabytes; a terabyte is approximately one trillion bytes). Typical hard drives on desktop and notebook computers hold up to 2 TB, and some desktop hard drives can hold up to 6 TB.

1.4 Data Hierarchy Data items processed by computers form a data hierarchy that becomes larger and more complex in structure as we progress from the simplest data items (called “bits”) to richer ones, such as characters and fields. Figure 1.3 illustrates a portion of the data hierarchy.

Fig. 1.3 Data hierarchy.

Bits The smallest data item in a computer can assume the value value

1.

or the

It’s called a bit (short for “binary digit”—a digit that can

assume one of two values). Remarkably, the impressive functions performed by computers involve only the simplest manipulations of and

1 s—examining

bit’s value (from

1

0s

a bit’s value, setting a bit’s value and reversing a

to

or from

to

1 ).

Characters It’s tedious for people to work with data in the low-level form of bits. Instead, they prefer to work with decimal digits (0–9), letters (A–Z and a–z), and special symbols (e.g., $, @, %, &, *, (,), –, +, ", :, ? and /). Digits, letters and special symbols are known as characters. The computer’s character set is the set of all the characters used to write programs and represent data items. Computers process only 1 s and 0 s,

so a computer’s character set represents every character as a

pattern of

1s

and

0 s.

C++ supports various character sets (including

Unicode®), with some requiring more than one byte per character. Unicode supports many of the world’s languages. See Appendix B for more information on the ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) character set—the popular subset of Unicode that represents uppercase and lowercase letters, digits and some common special characters.

Fields Just as characters are composed of bits, fields are composed of characters or bytes. A field is a group of characters or bytes that conveys meaning. For example, a field consisting of uppercase and lowercase letters can be used to represent a person’s name, and a field consisting of decimal digits could represent a person’s age.

Records Several related fields can be used to compose a record. In a payroll system, for example, the record for an employee might consist of the following fields (possible types for these fields are shown in parentheses): Employee identification number (a whole number) Name (a string of characters) Address (a string of characters) Hourly pay rate (a number with a decimal point) Year-to-date earnings (a number with a decimal point) Amount of taxes withheld (a number with a decimal point). Thus, a record is a group of related fields. In the preceding example, all the fields belong to the same employee. A company might have many employees and a payroll record for each.

Files

A file is a group of related records. [Note: More generally, a file contains arbitrary data in arbitrary formats. In some operating systems, a file is viewed simply as a sequence of bytes—any organization of the bytes in a file, such as organizing the data into records, is a view created by the application programmer.] It’s not unusual for an organization to have many files, some containing billions, or even trillions, of characters of information.

Database A database is a collection of data organized for easy access and manipulation. The most popular model is the relational database, in which data is stored in simple tables. A table includes records and fields. For example, a table of students might include first name, last name, major, year, student ID number and grade-point-average fields. The data for each student is a record, and the individual pieces of information in each record are the fields. You can search, sort and otherwise manipulate the data based on its relationship to multiple tables or databases. For example, a university might use data from the student database in combination with data from databases of courses, on-campus housing, meal plans, etc.

Big Data The amount of data being produced worldwide is enormous and growing quickly. According to IBM, approximately 2.5 quintillion bytes (2.5 exabytes) of data are created daily6 and according to Salesforce.com, 90% of the world’s data was created in just the past

12 months!7 According to an IDC study, the global data supply will reach 40 zettabytes (equal to 40 trillion gigabytes) annually by 2020.8 Figure 1.4 shows some common byte measurements. Big data applications deal with massive amounts of data and this field is growing quickly, creating lots of opportunity for software developers. According to a study by Gartner Group, over 4 million IT jobs globally were expected to support big data in 2015.9 6.

http://www-01.ibm.com/software/data/bigdata/what-is-big-data.html .

7.

https://www.salesforce.com/blog/2015/10/salesforce-channel-

ifttt.html .

8.

http://recode.net/2014/01/10/stuffed-why-data-storage-is-hot-

again-really/.

9.

http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2013/09/04/big-data-employment-boom/

.

Fig. 1.4 Byte measurements. Unit

Bytes

1 kilobyte (KB)

1024 bytes

1 megabyte (MB)

1024 kilobytes

1 gigabyte (GB)

1024 megabytes

Which is approximately

1 terabyte (TB)

1024 gigabytes

1 petabyte (PB)

1024 terabytes

1 exabyte (EB)

1024 petabytes

1 zettabyte (ZB)

1024 exabytes

1.5 Machine Languages, Assembly Languages and High-Level Languages Programmers write instructions in various programming languages, some directly understandable by computers and others requiring intermediate translation steps.

Machine Languages Any computer can directly understand only its own machine language (also called machine code), defined by its hardware architecture. Machine languages generally consist of numbers (ultimately reduced to 1s and 0s). Such languages are cumbersome for humans.

Assembly Languages Programming in machine language was simply too slow and tedious for most programmers. Instead, they began using English-like abbreviations to represent elementary operations. These abbreviations formed the basis of assembly languages. Translator programs called assemblers were developed to convert assembly-

language programs to machine language. Although assemblylanguage code is clearer to humans, it’s incomprehensible to computers until translated to machine language.

High-Level Languages To speed up the programming process further, high-level languages were developed in which single statements could be written to accomplish substantial tasks. High-level languages, such as C, C++, Java, C#, Swift and Visual Basic, allow you to write instructions that look more like everyday English and contain commonly used mathematical notations. Translator programs called compilers convert high-level language programs into machine language. The process of compiling a large high-level language program into machine language can take a considerable amount of computer time. Interpreter programs were developed to execute high-level language programs directly (without the need for compilation), although more slowly than compiled programs. Scripting languages such as the popular web languages JavaScript and PHP are processed by interpreters.

Performance Tip 1.1 Interpreters have an advantage over compilers in Internet scripting. An interpreted program can begin executing as soon as it’s downloaded to the client’s machine, without needing to be compiled before it can

execute. On the downside, interpreted scripts generally run slower and consume more memory than compiled code.

1.6 C and C++ C was implemented in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories. It initially became widely known as the UNIX operating system’s development language. Today, most of the code for general-purpose operating systems is written in C or C++. C++ evolved from C, which is available for most computers and is hardware independent. With careful design, it’s possible to write C programs that are portable to most computers. The widespread use of C with various kinds of computers (sometimes called hardware platforms) unfortunately led to many variations. A standard version of C was needed. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) cooperated with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to standardize C worldwide; the joint standard document was published in 1990. C11 is the latest ANSI standard for the C programming language. It was developed to evolve the C language to keep pace with increasingly powerful hardware and ever more demanding user requirements. C11 also makes C more consistent with C++. For more information on C and C11, see our book C How to Program, 8/e and our C Resource Center (located at http://www.deitel.com/C ).

C++, an extension of C, was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 at Bell Laboratories. Originally called “C with Classes,” it was renamed to C++ in the early 1980s. C++ provides a number of features that “spruce up” the C language, but more importantly, it provides capabilities for object-oriented programming that were inspired by the Simula simulation programming language. We say more about C++ and its current version in Section 1.14. You’ll begin developing customized, reusable classes and objects in Chapter 3. The book is object oriented, where appropriate, from the start and throughout the text. We also provide an optional automated teller machine (ATM) case study in Chapters 25–26, which contains a complete C++ implementation. The case study presents a carefully paced introduction to object-oriented design using the UML—an industry standard graphical modeling language for developing object-oriented systems. We guide you through a friendly design and implementation experience intended for the novice.

C++ Standard Library C++ programs consist of pieces called classes and functions. You can program each piece yourself, but most C++ programmers take advantage of the rich collections of classes and functions in the C++ Standard Library. Thus, there are really two parts to learning the C++ “world.” The first is learning the C++ language itself (often referred to as the “core language”); the second is learning how to use the classes

and functions in the C++ Standard Library. We discuss many of these classes and functions. P. J. Plauger’s book, The Standard C Library (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 1992), is a must-read for programmers who need a deep understanding of the ANSI C library functions included in C++. Many special-purpose class libraries are supplied by independent software vendors.

Software Engineering Observation 1.1 Use a “building-block” approach to create programs. Avoid reinventing the wheel. Use existing pieces wherever possible. Called software reuse, this practice is central to effective object-oriented programming.

Software Engineering Observation 1.2 When programming in C++, you typically will use the following building blocks: classes and functions from the C++ Standard Library, classes and functions you and your colleagues create, and classes and functions from various popular third-party libraries. The advantage of creating your own functions and classes is that you’ll know exactly how they work. You’ll be able to examine the C++ code. The disadvantage is the time-consuming and complex effort that

goes into designing, developing and maintaining new functions and classes that are correct and operate efficiently.

Performance Tip 1.2 Using C++ Standard Library functions and classes instead of writing your own versions can improve program performance, because they’re written carefully to perform efficiently. This technique also shortens program development time.

Portability Tip 1.1 Using C++ Standard Library functions and classes instead of writing your own improves program portability, because they’re included in every C++ implementation.

1.7 Programming Languages In this section, we provide brief comments on several popular programming languages (Fig. 1.5). Fig. 1.5 Some other programming languages. Programming

Description

language Fortran

Fortran (FORmula TRANslator) was developed by IBM Corporation in the mid-1950s to be used for scientific and engineering applications that require complex mathematical computations. It’s still widely used and its latest versions support object-oriented programming.

COBOL

COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) was developed in the late 1950s by computer manufacturers, the U.S. government and industrial computer users, based on a language developed by Grace Hopper, a career U.S. Navy officer and computer scientist. COBOL is still widely used for commercial applications that require precise and efficient manipulation of large amounts of data. Its latest version supports object-oriented programming.

Pascal

Research in the 1960s resulted in structured programming—a disciplined approach to writing programs that are clearer, easier to test and debug and easier to modify than programs produced with previous techniques. The Pascal language developed by Professor Niklaus Wirth in 1971 grew out of this research. It was popular for teaching structured programming for several decades.

Ada

Ada, based on Pascal, was developed under the sponsorship of the U.S.

Department of Defense (DOD) during the 1970s and early 1980s. The DOD wanted a single language that would fill most of its needs. The Pascal-based language was named after Lady Ada Lovelace, daughter of the poet Lord Byron. She’s credited with writing the world’s first computer program in the early 1800s (for the Analytical Engine mechanical computing device designed by Charles Babbage). Ada also supports object-oriented programming. Basic

Basic was developed in the 1960s at Dartmouth College to familiarize novices with programming techniques. Many of its latest versions are object oriented.

Objective-C

Objective-C is an object-oriented language based on C. It was developed in the early 1980s and later acquired by NeXT, which in turn was acquired by Apple. It became the key programming language for the OS X operating system and all iOS-powered devices (such as iPods, iPhones and iPads).

Swift

Swift, which was introduced in 2014, is Apple’s programming language of the future for developing iOS and OS X applications (apps). Swift is a contemporary language that includes popular programming-language features from languages such as Objective-C, Java, C#, Ruby, Python and others. In 2015, Apple released Swift 2 with new and updated features. According to the Tiobe Index, Swift has already become one of the most popular programming languages. Swift is now open source (Section 1.11.2), so it can be used on non-Apple platforms as well.

Java

Sun Microsystems in 1991 funded an internal corporate research project led by James Gosling, which resulted in the C++-based object-oriented programming language called Java. A key goal of Java is to enable developers to write programs that will run on a great variety of computer systems and computer-controlled devices. This is sometimes called “write once, run anywhere.” Java is used to develop large-scale enterprise applications, to enhance the functionality of web servers (the

computers that provide the content we see in our web browsers), to provide applications for consumer devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets, television set-top boxes, appliances, automobiles and more) and for many other purposes. Java is also the key language for developing Android smartphone and tablet apps. Visual Basic

Microsoft’s Visual Basic language was introduced in the early 1990s to simplify the development of Microsoft Windows applications. Its latest versions support object-oriented programming.

C#

Microsoft’s three primary object-oriented programming languages are C# (based on C++ and Java), Visual C++ (based on C++) and Visual Basic (based on the original Basic). C# was developed to integrate the web into computer applications, and is now widely used to develop enterprise applications and for mobile application development.

PHP

PHP is an object-oriented, open-source (see Section 1.11.2) “scripting” language supported by a community of developers and used by numerous websites. PHP is platform independent—implementations exist for all major UNIX, Linux, Mac and Windows operating systems.

Python

Python, another object-oriented scripting language, was released publicly in 1991. Developed by Guido van Rossum of the National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science in Amsterdam (CWI), Python draws heavily from Modula-3—a systems programming language. Python is “extensible”—it can be extended through classes and programming interfaces.

JavaScript

JavaScript is the most widely used scripting language. It’s primarily used to add programmability to web pages—for example, animations and interactivity with the user. It’s provided with all major web browsers.

Ruby on Rails

Ruby—created in the mid-1990s by Yukihiro Matsumoto—is an opensource, object-oriented programming language with a simple syntax that’s similar to Python. Ruby on Rails combines the scripting language

Ruby with the Rails web application framework developed by the company 37Signals. Their book, Getting Real ( http:// gettingreal.37signals.com/toc.php ), is a must read for web developers. Many Ruby on Rails developers have reported productivity gains over other languages when developing database-intensive web applications. Scala

Scala ( www.scala-lang.org/node/273 )—short for “scalable language”—was designed by Martin Odersky, a professor at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland. Released in 2003, Scala uses both the object-oriented programming and functional programming paradigms and is designed to integrate with Java. Programming in Scala can reduce the amount of code in your applications significantly.

1.8 Introduction to Object Technology Building software quickly, correctly and economically remains an elusive goal at a time when demands for new and more powerful software are soaring. Objects, or more precisely—as we’ll see in Chapter 3—the classes objects come from, are essentially reusable software components. There are date objects, time objects, audio objects, video objects, automobile objects, people objects, etc. Almost any noun can be reasonably represented as a software object in terms of attributes (e.g., name, color and size) and behaviors (e.g., calculating, moving and communicating). Software developers have discovered that using a modular, object-oriented design-andimplementation approach can make software development groups much more productive than was possible with earlier techniques— object-oriented programs are often easier to understand, correct and modify.

The Automobile as an Object Let’s begin with a simple analogy. Suppose you want to drive a car and make it go faster by pressing its accelerator pedal. What must happen before you can do this? Well, before you can drive a car, someone has to design it. A car typically begins as engineering drawings, similar to the blueprints that describe the design of a house.

These drawings include the design for an accelerator pedal. The pedal hides from the driver the complex mechanisms that actually make the car go faster, just as the brake pedal hides the mechanisms that slow the car, and the steering wheel hides the mechanisms that turn the car. This enables people with little or no knowledge of how engines, braking and steering mechanisms work to drive a car easily. Before you can drive a car, it must be built from the engineering drawings that describe it. A completed car has an actual accelerator pedal to make the car go faster, but even that’s not enough—the car won’t accelerate on its own (hopefully!), so the driver must press the pedal to accelerate the car.

Functions, Member Functions and Classes Let’s use our car example to introduce some key object-oriented programming concepts. Performing a task in a program requires a function. The function houses the program statements that actually perform its task. It hides these statements from its user, just as the accelerator pedal of a car hides from the driver the mechanisms of making the car go faster. In C++, we often create a program unit called a class to house the set of functions that perform the class’s tasks—these are known as the class’s member functions. For example, a class that represents a bank account might contain a member function to deposit money to an account, another to withdraw money from an account and a third to query what the account’s

current balance is. A class is similar to a car’s engineering drawings, which house the design of an accelerator pedal, brake pedal, steering wheel, and so on.

Instantiation Just as someone has to build a car from its engineering drawings before you can actually drive a car, you must build an object from a class before a program can perform the tasks that the class’s member functions define. The process of doing this is called instantiation. An object is then referred to as an instance of its class.

Reuse Just as a car’s engineering drawings can be reused many times to build many cars, you can reuse a class many times to build many objects. Reuse of existing classes when building new classes and programs saves time and effort. Reuse also helps you build more reliable and effective systems, because existing classes and components often have gone through extensive testing, debugging and performance tuning. Just as the notion of interchangeable parts was crucial to the Industrial Revolution, reusable classes are crucial to the software revolution that has been spurred by object technology.

Messages and Member-Function Calls When you drive a car, pressing its gas pedal sends a message to the car to perform a task—that is, to go faster. Similarly, you send

messages to an object. Each message is implemented as a memberfunction call that tells a member function of the object to perform its task. For example, a program might call a particular bank-account object’s deposit member function to increase the account’s balance.

Attributes and Data Members A car, besides having capabilities to accomplish tasks, also has attributes, such as its color, its number of doors, the amount of gas in its tank, its current speed and its record of total miles driven (i.e., its odometer reading). Like its capabilities, the car’s attributes are represented as part of its design in its engineering diagrams (which, for example, include an odometer and a fuel gauge). As you drive an actual car, these attributes are carried along with the car. Every car maintains its own attributes. For example, each car knows how much gas is in its own gas tank, but not how much is in the tanks of other cars. An object, similarly, has attributes that it carries along as it’s used in a program. These attributes are specified as part of the object’s class. For example, a bank-account object has a balance attribute that represents the amount of money in the account. Each bank-account object knows the balance in the account it represents, but not the balances of the other accounts in the bank. Attributes are specified by the class’s data members.

Encapsulation

Classes encapsulate (i.e., wrap) attributes and member functions into objects created from those classes—an object’s attributes and member functions are intimately related. Objects may communicate with one another, but they’re normally not allowed to know how other objects are implemented—implementation details are hidden within the objects themselves. This information hiding, as we’ll see, is crucial to good software engineering.

Inheritance A new class of objects can be created quickly and conveniently by inheritance—the new class absorbs the characteristics of an existing class, possibly customizing them and adding unique characteristics of its own. In our car analogy, an object of class “convertible” certainly is an object of the more general class “automobile,” but more specifically, the roof can be raised or lowered.

Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD) Soon you’ll be writing programs in C++. How will you create the code (i.e., the program instructions) for your programs? Perhaps, like many programmers, you’ll simply turn on your computer and start typing. This approach may work for small programs (like the ones we present in the early chapters of the book), but what if you were asked to create a software system to control thousands of automated teller machines for a major bank? Or suppose you were asked to work on a team of

thousands of software developers building the next generation of the U.S. air traffic control system? For projects so large and complex, you should not simply sit down and start writing programs. To create the best solutions, you should follow a detailed analysis process for determining your project’s requirements (i.e., defining what the system is supposed to do) and developing a design that satisfies them (i.e., deciding how the system should do it). Ideally, you’d go through this process and carefully review the design (and have your design reviewed by other software professionals) before writing any code. If this process involves analyzing and designing your system from an object-oriented point of view, it’s called an objectoriented analysis and design (OOAD) process. Languages like C++ are object oriented. Programming in such a language, called object-oriented programming (OOP), allows you to implement an object-oriented design as a working system.

The UML (Unified Modeling Language) Although many different OOAD processes exist, a single graphical language for communicating the results of any OOAD process has come into wide use. This language, known as the Unified Modeling Language (UML), is now the most widely used graphical scheme for modeling object-oriented systems. We present our first UML diagrams in Chapters 3 and 4, then use them in our deeper treatment of objectoriented programming through Chapter 12. In our optional ATM Software Engineering Case Study in Chapters 25–26 we present a

simple subset of the UML’s features as we guide you through an object-oriented design and implementation experience.

1.9 Typical C++ Development Environment C++ systems generally consist of three parts: a program development environment, the language and the C++ Standard Library. C++ programs typically go through six phases: edit, preprocess, compile, link, load and execute. The following discussion explains a typical C++ program development environment.

Phase 1: Editing a Program Phase 1 consists of editing a file with an editor program, normally known simply as an editor (Fig. 1.6). You type a C++ program (typically referred to as source code) using the editor, make any necessary corrections and save the program on your computer’s disk. C++ source code filenames often end with the .cpp , .cxx , .cc or .C (uppercase) extensions which indicate that a file contains C++ source code. See the documentation for your C++ compiler for more information on filename extensions. Two editors widely used on Linux systems are vim and emacs . You can also use a simple text editor, such as Notepad in Windows, to write your C++ code.

Fig. 1.6 Typical C++ development environment—editing phase. Integrated development environments (IDEs) are available from many major software suppliers. IDEs provide tools that support the software development process, including editors for writing and editing programs and debuggers for locating logic errors—errors that cause programs to execute incorrectly. Popular IDEs include Microsoft® Visual Studio 2015 Community Edition, NetBeans, Eclipse, Apple’s Xcode®, CodeLite and Clion.

Phase 2: Preprocessing a C++ Program In Phase 2, you give the command to compile the program (Fig. 1.7). In a C++ system, a preprocessor program executes automatically before the compiler’s translation phase begins (so we call preprocessing Phase 2 and compiling Phase 3). The C++ preprocessor obeys commands called preprocessing directives, which indicate that certain manipulations are to be performed on the program before compilation. These manipulations usually include (i.e., copy into the program file) other text files to be compiled, and perform various text replacements. The most common preprocessing directives are discussed in the early chapters; a detailed discussion of preprocessor features appears in Appendix E, Preprocessor.

Fig. 1.7 Typical C++ development environment—preprocessor phase.

Phase 3: Compiling a C++ Program In Phase 3, the compiler translates the C++ program into machinelanguage code—also referred to as object code (Fig. 1.8).

Fig. 1.8 Typical C++ development environment—compilation phase.

Phase 4: Linking Phase 4 is called linking. C++ programs typically contain references to functions and data defined elsewhere, such as in the standard libraries or in the private libraries of groups of programmers working on a particular project (Fig. 1.9). The object code produced by the C++ compiler typically contains “holes” due to these missing parts. A linker links the object code with the code for the missing functions to produce an executable program (with no missing pieces). If the program compiles and links correctly, an executable image is produced.

Fig. 1.9 Typical C++ development environment—linking phase.

Phase 5: Loading Phase 5 is called loading. Before a program can be executed, it must first be placed in memory (Fig. 1.10). This is done by the loader, which takes the executable image from disk and transfers it to memory. Additional components from shared libraries that support the program are also loaded.

Phase 6: Execution Finally, the computer, under the control of its CPU, executes the program one instruction at a time (Fig. 1.11). Some modern computer architectures often execute several instructions in parallel.

Fig. 1.10 Typical C++ development environment—loading phase.

Fig. 1.11 Typical C++ development environment—execution phase.

Problems That May Occur at Execution Time

Programs might not work on the first try. Each of the preceding phases can fail because of various errors that we’ll discuss throughout this book. For example, an executing program might try to divide by zero (an illegal operation for integer arithmetic in C++). This would cause the C++ program to display an error message. If this occurred, you’d have to return to the edit phase, make the necessary corrections and proceed through the remaining phases again to determine that the corrections fixed the problem(s). [Note: Most programs in C++ input or output data.] Certain C++ functions take their input from cin (the standard input stream; pronounced “see-in”), which is normally the keyboard, but cin can be redirected to another device. Data is often output to

cout

(the standard output stream; pronounced “see-

out”), which is normally the computer screen, but

cout

can be

redirected to another device. When we say that a program prints a result, we normally mean that the result is displayed on a screen. Data may be output to other devices, such as disks, hardcopy printers or even transmitted over the Internet. There is also a standard error stream referred to as cerr. The cerr stream (normally connected to the screen) is used for displaying error messages.

Common Programming Error 1.1 Errors such as division by zero occur as a program runs, so they’re called runtime errors or execution-time errors. Fatal runtime errors cause programs to terminate immediately without having successfully performed their jobs. Nonfatal runtime errors allow programs to run to completion, often producing incorrect results.

1.10 Test-Driving a C++ Application In this section, you’ll compile, run and interact with your first C++ application—an entertaining guess-the-number game, which picks a number from 1 to 1000 and prompts you to guess it. If your guess is correct, the game ends. If your guess is not correct, the application indicates whether your guess is higher or lower than the correct number. There is no limit on the number of guesses you can make. [Note: For this test drive only, we’ve modified this application from the exercise you’ll be asked to create in Chapter 6, Functions and an Introduction to Recursion. Normally this application randomly selects the correct answer as you execute the program. The modified application uses the same correct answer every time the program executes (though this may vary by compiler), so you can use the same guesses we use in this section and see the same results as we walk you through interacting with your first C++ application.] We’ll demonstrate running a C++ application using Visual Studio 2015 Community for Windows (Section 1.10.1) GNU C++ in a shell on Linux (Section 1.10.2) Clang/LLVM in Xcode on Mac OS X (Section 1.10.3).

The application runs similarly on all three platforms. You need to read only the section that corresponds to your operating system and compiler. Many development environments are available in which you can compile, build and run C++ applications—CodeLite, Clion, NetBeans and Eclipse are just a few. Consult your instructor or the online documentation for information on your specific development environment. In the following steps, you’ll run the application and enter various numbers to guess the correct number. The elements and functionality that you see in this application are typical of those you’ll learn to program in this book. We use fonts to distinguish between features you see on the screen and elements that are not directly related to the screen. We emphasize screen features like titles and menus (e.g., the File menu) in a semibold sans-serif bold font and emphasize filenames, text displayed by an application and values you should enter into an application (e.g., GuessNumber or 500 ) in a sans-serif font .

1.10.1 Compiling and Running an Application in Visual Studio 2015 for Windows In this section, you’ll run a C++ program on Windows using Microsoft Visual Studio 2015 Community Edition. We assume that you’ve already read the Before You Begin section for instructions on installing the IDE and downloading the book’s code examples. There are several versions of Visual Studio available—on some versions, the options, menus and instructions we present might differ slightly. From this point forward, we’ll refer to Visual Studio 2015 Community Edition simply as “Visual Studio” or “the IDE.”

Step 1: Checking Your Setup It’s important to read this book’s Before You Begin section to make sure that you’ve installed Visual Studio and copied the book’s examples to your hard drive correctly.

Step 2: Launching Visual Studio

Open Visual Studio from the Start menu. The IDE displays the Start Page (Fig. 1.12), which provides links for creating new programs, opening existing programs and learning about the IDE and various programming topics. Close this window for now by clicking the X in its tab—you can access this window any time by selecting View > Start Page. We use the > character to indicate selecting a menu item from a menu. For example, the notation File > Open indicates that you should select the Open menu item from the File menu.

Fig. 1.12 Visual Studio 2015 Community Edition window showing the Start Page.

Step 3: Creating a Project A project is a group of related files, such as the C++ source-code files that compose an application. Visual Studio organizes applications into projects and solutions, which contain one or more projects. Multiple-

project solutions are used to create large-scale applications. Each application in this book will be a solution containing a single project. The Visual Studio projects we created for this book’s examples are Win32 Console Application projects that you’ll execute from the IDE. To create a project: 1. Select File > New > Project…. 2. At the New Project dialog’s left side, select the category Installed > Templates > Visual C++ > Win32 (Fig. 1.13). 3. In the New Project dialog’s middle section, select Win32 Console Application. 4. Provide a name for your project in the Name field—we specified Guess Number —then click OK to display the Win32 Application Wizard window, then click Next > to display the Application Settings step.

Fig. 1.13 Visual Studio 2015 Community Edition New Project dialog.

5. Configure the settings as shown in Fig. 1.14 to create a solution containing an empty project, then click Finish.

Fig. 1.14 Win32 Application Wizard Settings step .

window’s

Application

At this point, the IDE creates your project and places its folder in

C:\Users\YourUserAccount\Documents\Visual Studio 2015\Projects

then opens the window in Fig. 1.15. This window displays editors as tabbed windows (one for each file) when you’re editing code. Also

displayed is the Solution Explorer in which you can view and manage your application’s files. In this book’s examples, you’ll typically place each program’s code files in the Source Files folder. If the Solution Explorer is not displayed, you can display it by selecting View > Solution Explorer.

Fig. 1.15 Visual Studio window after creating the project.

Guess Number

Step 4: Adding the GuessNumber.cpp File into the Project Next, you’ll add

GuessNumber.cpp

to the project you created in Step 3.

In Windows Explorer (Windows 7) or File Explorer (Windows 8 and

10), open the

ch01

GuessNumber.cpp

folder in the book’s

examples

folder, then drag

onto the Source Files folder in the Solution

Explorer.10 10. For the multiple source-code-file programs that you’ll see beginning in Chapter 3, drag all the files for a given program to the Source Files folder. When you begin creating multiple source-codefile programs yourself, you can right click the Source Files folder and select Add > New Item… to display a dialog for adding a new file.

Step 5: Compiling and Running the Project To compile and run the project so you can test-drive the application, select Debug > Start without debugging or simply type Ctrl + F5. If the program compiles correctly, the IDE opens a Command Prompt window and executes the program (Fig. 1.16)—we changed the Command Prompt’s color scheme to make the screen captures more readable. The application displays "Please type your first guess .", then displays a question mark ( ? ) as a prompt on the next line.

Fig. 1.16 Command Prompt showing the running program.

Step 6: Entering Your First Guess Type

500

again."

and press Enter. The application displays

"Too high. Try

(Fig. 1.17), meaning that the value you entered is greater than

the number the application chose as the correct guess.

Fig. 1.17 Entering an initial guess and receiving feedback.

Step 7: Entering Another Guess At the next prompt, enter "Too high. Try again." ,

250

(Fig. 1.18). The application displays

because the value you entered once again is

greater than the correct guess.

Fig. 1.18 Entering a second guess and receiving feedback.

Step 8: Entering Additional Guesses Continue to play the game (Fig. 1.19) by entering values until you guess the correct number. When you guess correctly, the application displays "Excellent! You guessed the number."

Step 9: Playing the Game Again or Exiting the Application After you guess the correct number, the application asks if you’d like to play another game. At the "Would you like to play again (y or n)?" prompt, entering the one character

y

Fig. 1.19 Entering additional guesses and guessing the correct number.

causes the application to choose a new number and displays the message "Please type your first guess." followed by a questionmark prompt so you can make your first guess in the new game. Entering the character n terminates the application. Each time you execute this application from the beginning (Step 5), it will choose the same numbers for you to guess.

1.10.2 Compiling and Running Using GNU C++ on Linux For this test drive, we assume that you read the Before You Begin section and that you placed the downloaded examples in your home directory on your Linux system. Please see your instructor if you have any questions regarding copying the files to your home directory. In this section’s figures, we use bold text to highlight the text that you type. The prompt in the shell on our system uses the tilde ( ~ ) character to represent the home directory, and each prompt ends with the dollar sign ( $ ) character. The prompt will vary among Linux systems.

Step 1: Locating the Completed Application From a Linux shell, use the command

cd

application directory (Fig. 1.20) by typing

cd examples/ch01

to change to the completed

then pressing Enter.

Fig. 1.20 Changing to the

GuessNumber

application’s directory.

Step 2: Compiling the Application Before running the application, you must first compile it (Fig. 1.21) by typing

g++ -std=c++14 GuessNumber.cpp -o GuessNumber

This command compiles the application for C++14 (the current C++ version) and produces an executable file called GuessNumber .

Fig. 1.21 Compiling the GuessNumber application using the command.

Step 3: Running the Application

g++

To run the executable file

GuessNumber, type ./GuessNumber

prompt, then press Enter (Fig. 1.22). The

./

at the next

tells Linux to run from the

current directory and is required to indicate that

GuessNumber

is an

executable file.

Fig. 1.22 Running the GuessNumber application.

Step 4: Entering Your First Guess The application displays

"Please type your first guess." ,

then

displays a question mark ( ? ) as a prompt on the next line (Fig. 1.22). At the prompt, enter

500

(Fig. 1.23). [Note that the outputs may vary

based on the compiler you’re using.]

Fig. 1.23 Entering an initial guess.

Step 5: Entering Another Guess

The application displays

"Too high. Try again." ,

meaning that the

value you entered is greater than the number the application chose as the correct guess (Fig. 1.23). At the next prompt, enter 250 (Fig. 1.24). This time the application displays

"Too low. Try again." ,

because the value you entered is less than the correct guess.

Fig. 1.24 Entering a second guess and receiving feedback.

Step 6: Entering Additional Guesses Continue to play the game (Fig. 1.25) by entering values until you guess the correct number. When you guess correctly, the application displays "Excellent! You guessed the number."

Fig. 1.25 Entering additional guesses and guessing the correct number.

Step 7: Playing the Game Again or Exiting the Application After you guess the correct number, the application asks if you’d like to play another game. At the "Would you like to play again (y or n)?" prompt, entering the one character

y

causes the application to choose

a new number and displays the message guess."

"Please type your first

followed by a question-mark prompt so you can make your

first guess in the new game. Entering the character

n

ends the

application, returns you to the shell and awaits your next command. Each time you execute this application from the beginning (i.e., Step 3), it will choose the same numbers for you to guess.

1.10.3 Compiling and Running with Xcode on Mac OS X In this section, we present how to run a C++ program on a Mac OS X using Apple’s Xcode IDE.

Step 1: Checking Your Setup It’s important to read this book’s Before You Begin section to make sure that you’ve installed Apple’s Xcode IDE and copied the book’s examples to your hard drive correctly.

Step 2: Launching Xcode Open a Finder window, select Applications and double click the Xcode icon ( ). If this is your first time running Xcode, the Welcome to Xcode window will appear (Fig. 1.26). Close this window for now— you can access it any time by selecting Window > Welcome to Xcode. We use the > character to indicate selecting a menu item from a menu. For example, the notation File > Open… indicates that you should select the Open… menu item from the File menu.

Fig. 1.26 Welcome to Xcode window.

Step 3: Creating a Project A project is a group of related files, such as the C++ source-code files that compose an application. The Xcode projects we created for this book’s examples are OS X Command Line Tool projects that you’ll execute directly in the IDE. To create a project: 1. Select File > New > Project…. 2. In the OS X subcategory Application, select Command Line Tool and click Next. 3. Provide a name for your project in the Product Name field—we specified Guess Number. 4. Ensure that the selected Language is C++ and click Next.

5. Specify where you want to store your project, then click Create. (See the Before You Begin section for information on configuring a project to use C++14.) Figure 1.27 shows the workspace window that appears after you create the project. By default, Xcode creates a main.cpp source-code file containing a simple program that displays

"Hello, World!" .

The

window is divided into four main areas below the toolbar: the Navigator area, Editor area and Utilities area are displayed initially. We’ll explain momentarily how to display the Debug area in which you’ll run and interact with the program.

Fig. 1.27 Sample Xcode C++ project with

main.cpp

selected.

At the left of the workspace window is the Navigator area, which has icons at its top for the navigators that can be displayed there. For this book, you’ll primarily work with

Project ( )—Shows all the files and folders in your project. Issue ( )—Shows you warnings and errors generated by the compiler. You choose which navigator to display by clicking the corresponding button above the Navigator area of the window. To the right of the Navigator area is the Editor area for editing source code. This area is always displayed in your workspace window. When you select a file in the Project navigator, the file’s contents are displayed in the Editor area. At the right side of the workspace window is the Utilities area, which you will not use in this book. The Debug area, when displayed, appears below the Editor area. The toolbar contains options for executing a program (Fig. 1.28(a)), a display area (Fig. 1.28(b)) to shows the progress of tasks executing in Xcode (such as the compilation status) and buttons (Fig. 1.28(c)) for hiding and showing areas in the workspace window.

Fig. 1.28 Xcode 7 toolbar.

Step 4: Deleting the main.cpp File from the Project You won’t use

main.cpp

in this test-drive, so you should delete the file.

In the Project navigator, right click the

main.cpp

file and select Delete.

In the dialog that appears, select Move to Trash to delete the file from your system—the file will not be removed completely until you empty your trash.

Step 5: Adding the GuessNumber.cpp File into the Project Next, you’ll add

GuessNumber.cpp

In a Finder window, open the then drag

GuessNumber.cpp

to the project you created in Step 3.

ch01

folder in the book’s

examples

folder,

onto the Guess Number folder in the

Project navigator. In the dialog that appears, ensure that Copy items if needed is checked, then click Finish.11 11. For the multiple source-code-file programs that you’ll see beginning in Chapter 3, drag all the files for a given program to the project’s folder. When you begin creating programs with multiple source-code files, you can right click the project’s folder and select New File… to display a dialog for adding a new file.

Step 6: Compiling and Running the Project To compile and run the project so you can test-drive the application, simply click the run ( ) button at the left side of Xcode’s toolbar. If the program compiles correctly, Xcode opens the Debug area (at the bottom of the Editor area) and executes the program in the right half of the Debug area (Fig. 1.29). The application displays "Please type your first guess." ,

the next line.

then displays a question mark ( ? ) as a prompt on

Fig. 1.29 Debug area showing the running program.

Step 7: Entering Your First Guess Click in the Debug area, then type application displays

500

and press Return. The

"Too low. Try again."

(Fig. 1.30), meaning that

the value you entered is less than the number the application chose as the correct guess.

Fig. 1.30 Entering an initial guess and receiving feedback.

Step 8: Entering Another Guess At the next prompt, enter "Too low. Try again." ,

750

(Fig. 1.31). The application displays

because the value you entered once again is

less than the correct guess.

Fig. 1.31 Entering a second guess and receiving feedback.

Step 9: Entering Additional Guesses Continue to play the game (Fig. 1.32) by entering values until you guess the correct number. When you guess correctly, the application displays "Excellent! You guessed the number."

Fig. 1.32 Entering additional guesses and guessing the correct number.

Playing the Game Again or Exiting the

Application After you guess the correct number, the application asks if you’d like to play another game. At the "Would you like to play again (y or n)?" prompt, entering the character

y

causes the application to choose a

new number and displays the message guess."

"Please type your first

followed by a question-mark prompt so you can make your

first guess in the new game. Entering the character

n

terminates the

application. Each time you execute this application from the beginning (Step 6), it will choose the same numbers for you to guess.

1.11 Operating Systems Operating systems are software systems that make using computers more convenient for users, application developers and system administrators. They provide services that allow each application to execute safely, efficiently and concurrently (i.e., in parallel) with other applications. The software that contains the core components of the operating system is called the kernel. Popular desktop operating systems include Linux, Windows and OS X (formerly called Mac OS X)—we used all three in developing this book. Popular mobile operating systems used in smartphones and tablets include Google’s Android, Apple’s iOS (for iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch devices) and Windows 10 Mobile. You can develop applications in C++ for all of these operating systems.

1.11.1 Windows—A Proprietary Operating System In the mid-1980s, Microsoft developed the Windows operating system, consisting of a graphical user interface built on top of DOS (Disk Operating System)—an enormously popular personal-computer operating system that users interacted with by typing commands. Windows borrowed from many concepts (such as icons, menus and

windows) developed by Xerox PARC and popularized by early Apple Macintosh operating systems. Windows 10 is Microsoft’s latest operating system—its features include enhancements to the Start menu and user interface, Cortana personal assistant for voice interactions, Action Center for receiving notifications, Microsoft’s new Edge web browser, and more. Windows is a proprietary operating system—it’s controlled by Microsoft exclusively. Windows is by far the world’s most widely used desktop operating system.

1.11.2 Linux—An Open-Source Operating System The Linux operating system is perhaps the greatest success of the open-source movement. Open-source software departs from the proprietary software development style that dominated software’s early years. With open-source development, individuals and companies contribute their efforts in developing, maintaining and evolving software in exchange for the right to use that software for their own purposes, typically at no charge. Open-source code is often scrutinized by a much larger audience than proprietary software, so errors often get removed faster. Open source also encourages innovation. Enterprise systems companies, such as IBM, Oracle and many others, have made significant investments in Linux open-source development. Some key organizations in the open-source community are

the Eclipse Foundation (the Eclipse Integrated Development Environment helps programmers conveniently develop software) the Mozilla Foundation (creators of the Firefox web browser) the Apache Software Foundation (creators of the Apache web server used to develop web-based applications) GitHub (which provides tools for managing open-source projects— it has millions of them under development). Rapid improvements to computing and communications, decreasing costs and open-source software have made it much easier and more economical to create a software-based business now than just a decade ago. A great example is Facebook, which was launched from a college dorm room and built with open-source software. The Linux kernel is the core of the most popular open-source, freely distributed, full-featured operating system. It’s developed by a loosely organized team of volunteers and is popular in servers, personal computers and embedded systems (such as the computer systems at the heart of smartphones, smart TVs and automobile systems). Unlike that of proprietary operating systems like Microsoft’s Windows and Apple’s OS X, Linux source code (the program code) is available to the public for examination and modification and is free to download and install. As a result, Linux users benefit from a huge community of developers actively debugging and improving the kernel, and the ability to customize the operating system to meet specific needs. A variety of issues—such as Microsoft’s market power, the small number of user-friendly Linux applications and the diversity of Linux

distributions, such as Red Hat Linux, Ubuntu Linux and many others— have prevented widespread Linux use on desktop computers. Linux has become extremely popular on servers and in embedded systems, such as Google’s Android-based smartphones.

1.11.3 Apple’s OS X; Apple’s iOS for iPhone®, iPad® and iPod Touch® Devices Apple, founded in 1976 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, quickly became a leader in personal computing. In 1979, Jobs and several Apple employees visited Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) to learn about Xerox’s desktop computer that featured a graphical user interface (GUI). That GUI served as the inspiration for the Apple Macintosh, launched with much fanfare in a memorable Super Bowl ad in 1984. The Objective-C programming language, created by Brad Cox and Tom Love at Stepstone in the early 1980s, added capabilities for object-oriented programming (OOP) to the C programming language. Steve Jobs left Apple in 1985 and founded NeXT Inc. In 1988, NeXT licensed Objective-C from StepStone and developed an Objective-C compiler and libraries which were used as the platform for the NeXTSTEP operating system’s user interface, and Interface Builder— used to construct graphical user interfaces.

Jobs returned to Apple in 1996 when Apple bought NeXT. Apple’s OS X operating system is a descendant of NeXTSTEP. Apple’s proprietary operating system, iOS, is derived from Apple’s OS X and is used in the iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch devices. In 2014, Apple introduced its new Swift programming language, which became open source in 2015. The iOS app-development community is gradually shifting from Objective-C to Swift.

1.11.4 Google’s Android Android—the fastest growing mobile and smartphone operating system—is based on the Linux kernel and Java. Android apps can also be developed in C++ and C. One benefit of developing Android apps is the openness of the platform. The operating system is open source and free. The Android operating system was developed by Android, Inc., which was acquired by Google in 2005. In 2007, the Open Handset Alliance™

http://www.openhandsetalliance.com/oha_members.html

was formed to develop, maintain and evolve Android, driving innovation in mobile technology and improving the user experience

while reducing costs. According to IDC, after the first six months of 2015, Android had 82.8% of the global smartphone market share, compared to 13.9% for Apple, 2.6% for Microsoft and 0.3% for Blackberry.12 The Android operating system is used in numerous smartphones, e-reader devices, tablets, in-store touch-screen kiosks, cars, robots, multimedia players and more. There are now more than 1.4 billion Android users.13 12.

http://www.idc.com/prodserv/smartphone-os-market-share.jsp.

13.

http://www.techtimes.com/articles/90028/20151002/google-says-

android-has-more-than-1-4-billion-active-users-worldwide-with-300million-on-lollipop.htm.

1.12 The Internet and the World Wide Web In the late 1960s, ARPA—the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States Department of Defense—rolled out plans for networking the main computer systems of approximately a dozen ARPA-funded universities and research institutions. The computers were to be connected with communications lines operating at speeds on the order of 50,000 bits per second, a stunning rate at a time when most people (of the few who even had networking access) were connecting over telephone lines to computers at a rate of 110 bits per second. Academic research was about to take a giant leap forward. ARPA proceeded to implement what quickly became known as the ARPANET, the precursor to today’s Internet. Today’s fastest Internet speeds are on the order of billions of bits per second with trillion-bitsper-second speeds on the horizon! Things worked out differently from the original plan. Although the ARPANET enabled researchers to network their computers, its main benefit proved to be the capability for quick and easy communication via what came to be known as electronic mail (e-mail). This is true even on today’s Internet, with e-mail, instant messaging, file transfer and social media such as Facebook and Twitter enabling billions of people worldwide to communicate quickly and easily.

The protocol (set of rules) for communicating over the ARPANET became known as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). TCP ensured that messages, consisting of sequentially numbered pieces called packets, were properly routed from sender to receiver, arrived intact and were assembled in the correct order.

The Internet: A Network of Networks In parallel with the early evolution of the Internet, organizations worldwide were implementing their own networks for both intraorganization (that is, within an organization) and interorganization (that is, between organizations) communication. A huge variety of networking hardware and software appeared. One challenge was to enable these different networks to communicate with each other. ARPA accomplished this by developing the Internet Protocol (IP), which created a true “network of networks,” the current architecture of the Internet. The combined set of protocols is now called TCP/IP. Businesses rapidly realized that by using the Internet, they could improve their operations and offer new and better services to their clients. Companies started spending large amounts of money to develop and enhance their Internet presence. This generated fierce competition among communications carriers and hardware and software suppliers to meet the increased infrastructure demand. As a result, bandwidth—the information-carrying capacity of communications lines—on the Internet has increased tremendously, while hardware costs have plummeted.

The World Wide Web: Making the Internet User-Friendly The World Wide Web (simply called “the web”) is a collection of hardware and software associated with the Internet that allows computer users to locate and view multimedia-based documents (documents with various combinations of text, graphics, animations, audios and videos) on almost any subject. The introduction of the web was a relatively recent event. In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee of CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) began to develop a technology for sharing information via “hyperlinked” text documents. Berners-Lee called his invention the HyperText Markup Language (HTML). He also wrote communication protocols such as HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to form the backbone of his new hypertext information system, which he referred to as the World Wide Web. In 1994, Berners-Lee founded the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C, http://www.w3.org ), devoted to developing web technologies. One of the W3C’s primary goals is to make the web universally accessible to everyone regardless of disabilities, language or culture.

Web Services Web services are software components stored on one computer that can be accessed by an app (or other software component) on another computer over the Internet. With web services, you can create mashups, which enable you to rapidly develop apps by combining

complementary web services, often from multiple organizations and possibly other forms of information feeds. For example, 100 Destinations ( http://www.100destinations.co.uk ) combines the photos and tweets from Twitter with the mapping capabilities of Google Maps to allow you to explore countries around the world through the photos of others. Programmableweb ( http://www.programmableweb.com/ ) provides a directory of over 11,150 APIs and 7,300 mashups, plus how-to guides and sample code for creating your own mashups. According to Programmableweb, the three most widely used APIs for mashups are Google Maps, Twitter and YouTube.

Ajax Ajax technology helps Internet-based applications perform like desktop applications—a difficult task, given that such applications suffer transmission delays as data is shuttled back and forth between your computer and server computers on the Internet. Using Ajax, applications like Google Maps have achieved excellent performance and approach the look-and-feel of desktop applications.

The Internet of Things The Internet is no longer just a network of computers—it’s an Internet of Things. A thing is any object with an IP address and the ability to send data automatically over the Internet—e.g., a car with a transponder for paying tolls, a heart monitor implanted in a human, a

smart meter that reports energy usage, mobile apps that can track your movement and location, and smart thermostats that adjust room temperatures based on weather forecasts and activity in the home.

1.13 Some Key Software Development Terminology Figure 1.33 lists a number of buzzwords that you’ll hear in the software development community. Fig. 1.33 Software technologies. Technology

Description

Agile

Agile software development is a set of methodologies that try to get

software

software implemented faster and using fewer resources. Check out the

development

Agile Alliance ( www.agilealliance.org ) and the Agile Manifesto ( www.agilemanifesto.org ).

Refactoring

Refactoring involves reworking programs to make them clearer and easier to maintain while preserving their correctness and functionality. It’s widely employed with agile development methodologies. Many IDEs contain built-in refactoring tools to do major portions of the reworking automatically.

Design

Design patterns are proven architectures for constructing flexible and

patterns

maintainable object-oriented software. The field of design patterns tries to enumerate those recurring patterns, encouraging software designers to reuse them to develop better-quality software using less time, money and effort.

LAMP

LAMP is an acronym for the open-source technologies that many developers use to build web applications inexpensively—it stands for

Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP (or Perl or Python—two other popular scripting languages). MySQL is an open-source database-management system. PHP is a popular open-source server-side “scripting” language for developing web applications. Apache is the most popular web server software. The equivalent for Windows development is WAMP—Windows, Apache, MySQL and PHP. Software as

Software has generally been viewed as a product; most software still is

a Service

offered this way. If you want to run an application, you buy a software

(SaaS)

package from a software vendor—often a CD, DVD or web download. You then install that software on your computer and run it as needed. As new versions appear, you upgrade your software, often at considerable cost in time and money. This process can become cumbersome for organizations that must maintain tens of thousands of systems on a diverse array of computer equipment. With Software as a Service (SaaS), the software runs on servers elsewhere on the Internet. When that server is updated, all clients worldwide see the new capabilities—no local installation is needed. You access the service through a browser. Browsers are quite portable, so you can run the same applications on a wide variety of computers from anywhere in the world. Sales-force.com, Google, Microsoft and many other companies offer SaaS.

Platform as a

Platform as a Service (PaaS) provides a computing platform for

Service

developing and running applications as a service over the web, rather

(PaaS)

than installing the tools on your computer. Some PaaS providers are Google App Engine, Amazon EC2 and Windows Azure™.

Cloud

SaaS and PaaS are examples of cloud computing. You can use software

computing

and data stored in the “cloud”—i.e., accessed on remote computers (or servers) via the Internet and available on demand—rather than having it stored locally on your desktop, notebook computer or mobile device. This allows you to increase or decrease computing resources to meet your needs at any given time, which is more cost effective than purchasing hardware to provide enough storage and processing power to meet

occasional peak demands. Cloud computing also saves money by shifting to the service provider the burden of managing these apps (such as installing and upgrading the software, security, backups and disaster recovery). Software

Software Development Kits (SDKs) include the tools and

Development

documentation developers use to program applications.

Kit (SDK)

Software is complex. Large, real-world software applications can take many months or even years to design and implement. When large software products are under development, they typically are made available to the user communities as a series of releases, each more complete and polished than the last (Fig. 1.34). Fig. 1.34 Software product-release terminology. Version

Description

Alpha

Alpha software is the earliest release of a software product that’s still under active development. Alpha versions are often buggy, incomplete and unstable and are released to a relatively small number of developers for testing new features, getting early feedback, etc.

Beta

Beta versions are released to a larger number of developers later in the development process after most major bugs have been fixed and new features are nearly complete. Beta software is more stable, but still subject to change.

Release

Release candidates are generally feature complete, (mostly) bug free and

candidates

ready for use by the community, which provides a diverse testing environment—the software is used on different systems, with varying constraints and for a variety of purposes.

Final

Any bugs that appear in the release candidate are corrected, and

release

eventually the final product is released to the general public. Software companies often distribute incremental updates over the Internet.

Continuous

Software that’s developed using this approach (for example, Google search

beta

or Gmail) generally does not have version numbers. It’s hosted in the cloud (not installed on your computer) and is constantly evolving so that users always have the latest version.

1.14 C++11 and C++14: The Latest C++ Versions C++11 was published by ISO/IEC in 2011. Bjarne Stroustrup, the creator of C++, expressed his vision for the future of the language— the main goals were to make C++ easier to learn, improve librarybuilding capabilities and increase compatibility with the C programming language. C++11 extended the C++ Standard Library and added several features and enhancements to improve performance and security. The three compilers we use in this book 11

Visual Studio 2015 Community Edition (Microsoft Windows) GNU C++ (Linux) Clang/LLVM in Xcode (Mac OS X) 14

have implemented most C++11 features. The current C++ standard, C++14, was published by ISO/IEC in 2014. It added several language features and C++ Standard Library enhancements, and fixed bugs from C++11. Throughout this book, we

cover features of C++11 and C++14 as appropriate for a book at this level. For a list of C++11 and C++14 features and the compilers that support them, visit

http://en.cppreference.com/w/cpp/compiler_support

The next version of the C++ standard, C++17, is currently under development. For a list of proposed features, see 17

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%2B%2B17

1.15 Boost C++ Libraries The Boost C++ Libraries ( www.boost.org ) are free, open-source libraries created by members of the C++ community. They are peer reviewed and portable across many compilers and platforms. Boost has grown to over 130 libraries, with more being added regularly. Today there are thousands of programmers in the Boost open-source community. The Boost libraries work well with the existing C++ Standard Library and often act as a proving ground for capabilities that are eventually absorbed into the C++ Standard Library. For example, the C++11 “regular expression” and “smart pointer” libraries, among others, are based on work done by the Boost community. Regular expressions are used to match specific character patterns in text. They can be used to validate data to ensure that it’s in a particular format, to replace parts of one string with another, or to split a string. Many common bugs in C and C++ code are related to pointers, a powerful programming capability that C++ absorbed from C. As you’ll see, smart pointers help you avoid some key errors associated with traditional pointers.

1.16 Keeping Up to Date with Information Technologies Figure 1.35 lists key technical and business publications that will help you stay up-to-date with the latest news, trends and technology. You can also find a growing list of Internet-and web-related Resource Centers at www.deitel.com/ResourceCenters.html . Fig. 1.35 Technical and business publications. Publication

URL

AllThingsD

allthingsd.com

Bloomberg

www.businessweek.com

BusinessWeek CNET

news.cnet.com

Communications of the

cacm.acm.org

ACM Computerworld

www.computerworld.com

Engadget

www.engadget.com

eWeek

www.eweek.com

Fast Company

www.fastcompany.com

Fortune

fortune.com

GigaOM

gigaom.com

Hacker News

news.ycombinator.com

IEEE Computer

www.computer.org/portal/web/computingnow/

Magazine

computer

InfoWorld

www.infoworld.com

Mashable

mashable.com

PCWorld

www.pcworld.com

SD Times

www.sdtimes.com

Slashdot

slashdot.org

Stack Overflow

stackoverflow.com

Technology Review

technologyreview.com

Techcrunch

techcrunch.com

The Next Web

thenextweb.com

The Verge

www.theverge.com

Wired

www.wired.com

Self-Review Exercises 1. 1.1 Fill in the blanks in each of the following statements: A. Computers process data under the control of sets of instructions called . B. The key logical units of the computer are the , , , , and . C. The three types of languages discussed in the chapter are , and . D. The programs that translate high-level language programs into machine language are called . E. is an operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux kernel and Java. F. software is generally feature complete and (supposedly) bug free and ready for use by the community. G. The Wii Remote, as well as many smartphones, uses a(n) which allows the device to respond to motion. 2. 1.2 Fill in the blanks in each of the following sentences about the C++ environment. A. C++ programs are normally typed into a computer using a(n) program. B. In a C++ system, a(n) program executes before the compiler’s translation phase begins.

C. The program combines the output of the compiler with various library functions to produce an executable program. D. The program transfers the executable program from disk to memory. 3. 1.3 Fill in the blanks in each of the following statements (based on Section 1.8): A. Objects have the property of —although objects may know how to communicate with one another across well-defined interfaces, they normally are not allowed to know how other objects are implemented. B. C++ programmers concentrate on creating , which contain data members and the member functions that manipulate those data members and provide services to clients. C. The process of analyzing and designing a system from an object-oriented point of view is called . D. With , new classes of objects are derived by absorbing characteristics of existing classes, then adding unique characteristics of their own. E. is a graphical language that allows people who design software systems to use an industry-standard notation to represent them. F. The size, shape, color and weight of an object are considered of the object’s class.

Exercises 1. 1.4 Fill in the blanks in each of the following statements: A. The logical unit of the computer that receives information from outside the computer for use by the computer is the . B. The process of instructing the computer to solve a problem is called . C. is a type of computer language that uses Englishlike abbreviations for machine-language instructions. D. is a logical unit of the computer that sends information which has already been processed by the computer to various devices so that it may be used outside the computer. E. and are logical units of the computer that retain information. F. is a logical unit of the computer that performs calculations. G. is a logical unit of the computer that makes logical decisions. H. languages are most convenient to the programmer for writing programs quickly and easily. I. The only language a computer can directly understand is that computer’s . J. is a logical unit of the computer that coordinates the activities of all the other logical units.

2. 1.5 Fill in the blanks in each of the following statements: A. initially became widely known as the development language of the UNIX operating system. B. The programming language was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in the early 1980s at Bell Laboratories. 3. 1.6 Fill in the blanks in each of the following statements: A. C++ programs normally go through six phases— , , , and . B. A(n) provides many tools that support the software development process, such as editors for writing and editing programs, debuggers for locating logic errors in programs, and many other features.

,

4. 1.7 You’re probably wearing on your wrist one of the world’s most common types of objects— a watch. Discuss how each of the following terms and concepts applies to the notion of a watch: object, attributes, behaviors, class, inheritance (consider, for example, an alarm clock), modeling, messages, encapsulation, interface and information hiding.

Making a Difference Throughout the book we’ve included Making a Difference exercises in which you’ll be asked to work on problems that really matter to individuals, communities, countries and the world. 1. 1.8 (Test Drive: Carbon Footprint Calculator) Some scientists believe that carbon emissions, especially from the burning of fossil fuels, contribute significantly to global warming and that this can be combatted if individuals take steps to limit their use of carbon-based fuels. Various organizations and individuals are increasingly concerned about their “carbon footprints.” Websites such as TerraPass

http://www.terrapass.com/carbon-footprint-calculator-2/

and Carbon Footprint

http://www.carbonfootprint.com/calculator.aspx

provide carbon footprint calculators. Test drive these calculators to determine your carbon footprint. Exercises in later chapters will ask you to program your own carbon footprint

calculator. To prepare for this, research the formulas for calculating carbon footprints. 2. 1.9 (Test Drive: Body Mass Index Calculator) By recent estimates, two-thirds of the people in the United States are overweight and about half of those are obese. This causes significant increases in illnesses such as diabetes and heart disease. To determine whether a person is overweight or obese, you can use a measure called the body mass index (BMI). The United States Department of Health and Human Services provides a BMI calculator at http:// www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/BMI/bmicalc.htm .

Use it

to calculate your own BMI. An exercise in Chapter 2 will ask you to program your own BMI calculator. To prepare for this, research the formulas for calculating BMI. 3. 1.10 (Attributes of Hybrid Vehicles) In this chapter you learned the basics of classes. Now you’ll begin “fleshing out” aspects of a class called “Hybrid Vehicle.” Hybrid vehicles are becoming increasingly popular, because they often get much better mileage than purely gasoline-powered vehicles. Browse the web and study the features of four or five of today’s popular hybrid cars, then list as many of their hybrid-related attributes as you can. For example, common attributes include city-milesper-gallon and highway-miles-per-gallon. Also list the attributes of the batteries (type, weight, etc.). 4. 1.11 (Gender Neutrality) Some people want to eliminate sexism in all forms of communication. You’ve been asked to create a program that can process a paragraph of text and replace gender-specific words with gender-neutral ones.

Assuming that you’ve been given a list of gender-specific words and their gender-neutral replacements (e.g., replace “wife” with “spouse,” “man” with “person,” “daughter” with “child” and so on), explain the procedure you’d use to read through a paragraph of text and manually perform these replacements. How might your procedure generate a strange term like “woperchild,” which is actually listed in the Urban Dictionary ( www.urbandictionary.com )? In Chapter 4, you’ll learn that a more formal term for “procedure” is “algorithm,” and that an algorithm specifies the steps to be performed and the order in which to perform them. 5. 1.12 (Privacy) Some online e-mail services save all e-mail correspondence for some period of time. Suppose a disgruntled employee of one of these online e-mail services were to post all of the e-mail correspondences for millions of people, including yours, on the Internet. Discuss the issues. 6. 1.13 (Programmer Responsibility and Liability) As a programmer in industry, you may develop software that could affect people’s health or even their lives. Suppose a software bug in one of your programs were to cause a cancer patient to receive an excessive dose during radiation therapy and that the person either was severely injured or died. Discuss the issues. 7. 1.14 (2010 “Flash Crash”) An example of the consequences of our dependency on computers was the so-called “flash crash” which occurred on May 6, 2010, when the U.S. stock market fell precipitously in a matter of minutes, wiping out trillions of dollars of investments, and then recovered within

minutes. Use the Internet to investigate the causes of this crash and discuss the issues it raises.

Making a Difference Resources The Microsoft Imagine Cup is a global competition in which students use technology to try to solve some of the world’s most difficult problems, such as environmental sustainability, ending hunger, emergency response, literacy and more. For more information about the competition and to learn about previous winners’ projects, visit https://www.imaginecup.com/Custom/Index/About . You can also find several project ideas submitted by worldwide charitable organizations. For additional ideas for programming projects that can make a difference, search the web for “making a difference” and visit the following websites: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals

The United Nations Millennium Project seeks solutions to major worldwide issues such as environmental sustainability, gender equality, child and maternal health, universal education and more. http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet

The IBM® Smarter Planet website discusses how IBM is using technology to solve issues related to business, cloud computing, education, sustainability and more. http://www.gatesfoundation.org

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation provides grants to

organizations that work to alleviate hunger, poverty and disease in developing countries. http://nethope.org

NetHope is a collaboration of humanitarian organizations worldwide working to solve technology problems such as connectivity, emergency response and more. http://www.rainforestfoundation.org

The Rainforest Foundation works to preserve rainforests and to protect the rights of the indigenous people who call the rainforests home. The site includes a list of things you can do to help. http://www.undp.org

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) seeks solutions to global challenges such as crisis prevention and recovery, energy and the environment, democratic governance and more. http://www.unido.org

The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) seeks to reduce poverty, give developing countries the opportunity to participate in global trade, and promote energy efficiency and sustainability. http://www.usaid.gov/

USAID promotes global democracy, health, economic growth, conflict prevention, humanitarian aid and more.

Answers to Self-Review Exercises 1. 1.1 A. programs. B. input unit, output unit, memory unit, central processing unit, arithmetic and logic unit, secondary storage unit. C. machine languages, assembly languages, high-level languages. D. compilers. E. Android. F. Release candidate. G. accelerometer. 2. 1.2 A. B. C. D.

editor. preprocessor. linker. loader.

A. B. C. D. E. F.

information hiding. classes. object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD). inheritance. The Unified Modeling Language (UML). attributes.

3. 1.3

2 Introduction to C++ Programming, Input/Output and Operators

Objectives In this chapter you’ll: Write basic computer programs in C++. Write input and output statements. Use fundamental types. Learn computer memory concepts. Use arithmetic operators. Understand the precedence of arithmetic operators. Write decision-making statements.

Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

2.1 Introduction 2.2 First Program in C++: Printing a Line of Text 2.3 Modifying Our First C++ Program 2.4 Another C++ Program: Adding Integers 2.5 Memory Concepts 2.6 Arithmetic 2.7 Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators 2.8 Wrap-Up

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Summary Self-Review Exercises Answers to Self-Review Exercises Exercises Making a Difference

2.1 Introduction We now introduce C++ programming, which facilitates a disciplined approach to program development. Most of the C++ programs you’ll study in this book process data and display results. In this chapter, we present five examples that demonstrate how your programs can display messages and obtain data from the user for processing. The first three examples display messages on the screen. The next obtains two numbers from a user at the keyboard, calculates their sum and displays the result. The accompanying discussion shows you how to perform arithmetic calculations and save their results for later use. The fifth example demonstrates decision making by showing you how to compare two numbers, then display messages based on the comparison results. We analyze each program one line at a time to help you ease into C++ programming.

Compiling and Running Programs We’ve posted videos that demonstrate compiling and running programs in Microsoft Visual C++, GNU C++ and Xcode Clang/LLVM at

http://www.deitel.com/books/cpphtp10

2.2 First Program in C++: Printing a Line of Text Consider a simple program that prints a line of text (Fig. 2.1). This program illustrates several important features of the C++ language. The text in lines 1–10 is the program’s source code (or code). The line numbers are not part of the source code.

Fig. 2.1 Text-printing program.

Comments Lines 1 and 2

// Fig. 2.1: fig02_01.cpp

// Text-printing program.

each begin with

// ,

indicating that the remainder of each line is a

comment. You insert comments to document your programs and to help other people read and understand them. Comments do not cause the computer to perform any action when the program is run—they’re ignored by the C++ compiler and do not cause any machine-language object code to be generated. The comment Text-printing program describes the purpose of the program. A comment beginning with

//

is called a single-line comment because it terminates at the end of the current line. You also may use comments containing one or more lines enclosed in /* and */ , as in

/* Fig. 2.1: fig02_01.cpp Text-printing program. */

Good Programming Practice 2.1 Every program should begin with a comment that describes the purpose of the program.

#include Preprocessing Directive Line 3

#include // enables program to output data to the screen

is a preprocessing directive, which is a message to the C++ preprocessor (introduced in Section 1.9). Lines that begin with

#

are

processed by the preprocessor before the program is compiled. This line notifies the preprocessor to include in the program the contents of the input/output stream header . This header is a file containing information the compiler uses when compiling any program that outputs data to the screen or inputs data from the keyboard using C++’s stream input/output. The program in Fig. 2.1 outputs data to the screen, as we’ll soon see. We discuss headers in more detail in Chapter 6 and explain the contents of in Chapter 13.

Common Programming Error 2.1 Forgetting to include the

header in a program that inputs

data from the keyboard or outputs data to the screen causes the compiler to issue an error message.

Blank Lines and White Space Line 4 is simply a blank line. You use blank lines, space characters and tab characters (i.e., “tabs”) to make programs easier to read.

Together, these characters are known as white space. White-space characters are normally ignored by the compiler.

The main Function Line 5

// function main begins program execution

is a single-line comment indicating that program execution begins at the next line. Line 6

int main() {

is a part of every C++ program. The parentheses after that

main

main

indicate

is a program building block called a function. C++ programs

typically consist of one or more functions and classes (as you’ll learn in Chapter 3). Exactly one function in every program must be named main . Figure 2.1 contains only one function. C++ programs begin executing at function

main ,

even if

in the program. The keyword

int

main

is not the first function defined

to the left of

main

indicates that

main

“returns” an integer (whole number) value. A keyword is a word in code that is reserved by C++ for a specific use. The complete list of C++ keywords can be found in Fig. 4.3. We’ll explain what it means for a function to “return a value” when we demonstrate how to create your own functions in Section 3.3. For now, simply include the keyword int to the left of main in each of your programs. The left brace,

{,

(end of line 6) must begin the body of every

function. A corresponding right brace,

},

(line 10) must end each

function’s body.

An Output Statement Line 7

std::cout 10) cout ). C. overload. D. parameterized. E. scope resolution.

19 Custom Templatized Data Structures

Objectives In this chapter you’ll: Form linked data structures using pointers, self-referential classes and recursion. Create and manipulate dynamic data structures such as linked lists, queues, stacks and binary trees. Use binary search trees for high-speed searching and sorting. Learn important applications of linked data structures. Create reusable data structures with class templates, inheritance and composition. Have the opportunity to try many challenging data-structures exercises, including the Building Your Own Compiler project.

Outline 1. 19.1 Introduction A. 19.1.1 Always Prefer the Standard Library’s Containers, Iterators and Algorithms, if Possible B. 19.1.2 Special Section: Building Your Own Compiler 2. 19.2 Self-Referential Classes 3. 19.3 Linked Lists A. 19.3.1 Testing Our Linked List Implementation B. 19.3.2 Class Template ListNode C. 19.3.3 Class Template

List

D. 19.3.4 Member Function

insertAtFront

E. 19.3.5 Member Function

insertAtBack

F. 19.3.6 Member Function

removeFromFront

G. 19.3.7 Member Function

removeFromBack

H. 19.3.8 Member Function

print

I. 19.3.9 Circular Linked Lists and Double Linked Lists 4. 19.4 Stacks A. 19.4.1 Taking Advantage of the Relationship Between Stack and List B. 19.4.2 Implementing a Class Template Based By Inheriting from

Stack

Class

List

C. 19.4.3 Dependent Names in Class Templates

D. 19.4.4 Testing the

Stack

Class Template

E. 19.4.5 Implementing a Class Template With Composition of a

List

C. 19.5.3 Testing the

Queue

Class

Queue

Class

Object

5. 19.5 Queues A. 19.5.1 Applications of Queues B. 19.5.2 Implementing a Class Template Based By Inheriting from

Stack

List

Class Template

6. 19.6 Trees A. 19.6.1 Basic Terminology B. 19.6.2 Binary Search Trees C. 19.6.3 Testing the Tree Class Template D. 19.6.4 Class Template

TreeNode

E. 19.6.5 Class Template

Tree

F. 19.6.6

Tree

Member Function

G. 19.6.7

Tree

Traversal Functions

insertNodeHelper

H. 19.6.8 Duplicate Elimination I. 19.6.9 Overview of the Binary Tree Exercises 7. 19.7 Wrap-Up 1. 2. 3. 4.

Summary Self-Review Exercises Answers to Self-Review Exercises Exercises

5. Special Section: Building Your Own Compiler

19.1 Introduction We’ve studied fixed-size data structures—such as one- and twodimensional template-based array s (Chapter 7) and built-in arrays (Chapter 8)—and various C++ Standard Library dynamic data structures ( array s and vector s in Chapter 7 and other templatebased containers in Chapter 15) that can grow and shrink during execution. In this chapter, we demonstrate how you can create your own custom templatized dynamic data structures. We discuss several popular and important data structures and implement programs that create and manipulate them: Linked lists are collections of data items logically “lined up in a row”—insertions and removals are made anywhere in a linked list. Stacks (which we introduced in Section 6.11 and discussed again in Section 15.7.1) are important in compilers and operating systems: Insertions and removals are made only at one end of a stack—its top. Queues represent waiting lines; insertions are made at the back (also referred to as the tail) of a queue and removals are made from the front (also referred to as the head) of a queue. Binary trees facilitate searching and sorting data, duplicate elimination and compiling expressions into machine code.

Each of these data structures has many other interesting applications. We use class templates, inheritance and composition to create and package these data structures for reusability and maintainability. The programs employ extensive pointer manipulation. The exercises include a rich collection of useful applications.

19.1.1 Always Prefer the Standard Library’s Containers, Iterators and Algorithms, if Possible The C++ Standard Library’s containers, iterators for traversing those containers and algorithms for processing the containers’ elements meet the needs of most C++ programmers. The Standard Library code is carefully written to be correct, portable, efficient and extensible. Understanding how to build custom templatized data structures will also help you use the Standard Library containers, iterators and algorithms, more effectively.

19.1.2 Special Section: Building Your Own Compiler

We encourage you to attempt the optional project described in the Special Section: Building Your Own Compiler ( http://www.deitel.com/ books/cpphtp10 ).

You’ve been using a C++ compiler to translate your

programs to machine code so that you can execute these programs on your computer. In this project, you’ll actually build your own compiler. It will read a file of statements written in a simple, yet powerful, high-level language similar to early versions of BASIC. Your compiler will translate these statements into a file of Simpletron Machine Language (SML) instructions—SML is the artificial language you learned in the Chapter 8 Special Section: Building Your Own Computer. Your Simpletron Simulator program will then execute the SML program produced by your compiler! The special section discusses the high-level language and the algorithms you’ll need to convert each type of high-level language statement into machine code. We provide compiler-theory exercises and suggest enhancements to both the compiler and the Simpletron Simulator.

19.2 Self-Referential Classes A self-referential class contains a member that points to a class object of the same class type. For example, the definition

class Node { public: explicit Node(int); // constructor void setData(int); // set data member int getData() const; // get data member void setNextPtr(Node*); // set pointer to next Node Node* getNextPtr() const; // get pointer to next Node private: int data; // data stored in this Node Node* nextPtr; // pointer to another object of same type };

defines a type,

Node .

integer member

data

Type

Node

has two

private

and pointer member

points to an object of type

Node —an

data members—

nextPtr .

Member

nextPtr

object of the same type as the

one being declared here, hence the term self-referential class. Member nextPtr is referred to as a link—i.e., nextPtr can “tie” an object of type

Node

to another object of the same type. Type

Node

also

has five member functions—a constructor that receives an integer to initialize member data , a setData function to set the value of member data ,

a

getData

function to return the value of member

setNextPtr

function to set the value of member

getNextPtr

function to return the value of member

nextPtr

data ,

a

and a

nextPtr .

Self-referential class objects can be linked together to form useful data structures such as lists, queues, stacks and trees. Figure 19.1 illustrates two self-referential class objects linked together to form a list. Note that a slash—representing a null pointer ( nullptr )—is placed in the link member of the second self-referential class object to indicate that the link does not point to another object. The slash is for illustration purposes only; it does not correspond to the backslash character in C++. A null pointer normally indicates the end of a data structure.

Common Programming Error 19.1 Not setting the link in the last node of a linked data structure to nullptr is a (possibly fatal) logic error.

Fig. 19.1 Two self-referential class objects linked together. The following sections discuss lists, stacks, queues and trees. The data structures presented in this chapter are created and maintained with dynamic memory allocation (Section 10.9), self-referential classes, class templates (Chapters 7, 15 and 18) and function templates (Section 6.17).

19.3 Linked Lists A linked list is a linear collection of self-referential class objects, called nodes, connected by pointer links—hence, the term “linked” list. A linked list is accessed via a pointer to the list’s first node. Each subsequent node is accessed via the link-pointer member stored in the previous node. By convention, the link pointer in the last node of a list is set to nullptr to mark the end of the list. Data is stored in a linked list dynamically—each node is created and destroyed as necessary. A node can contain data of any type, including objects of other classes. If nodes contain base-class pointers to base-class and derived-class objects related by inheritance, we can have a linked list of such nodes and process them polymorphically using virtual function calls. Stacks and queues are also linear data structures and, as we’ll see, can be viewed as constrained versions of linked lists. Trees are nonlinear data structures. Linked lists provide several advantages over

array

objects and built-in

arrays. A linked list is appropriate when the number of data elements to be represented at one time is unpredictable. Linked lists are dynamic, so the length of a list can increase or decrease as necessary. The size of an array object or built-in array, however, cannot be altered, because the array size is fixed at compile time. An array object or built-in array can become full. Linked lists become full

only when the system has insufficient memory to satisfy additional dynamic storage allocation requests.

Performance Tip 19.1 An

array

object or built-in array can be declared to contain more

elements than the number of items expected, but this can waste memory. Linked lists can provide better memory utilization in these situations. Linked lists can grow and shrink as necessary at runtime. Class template vector (Section 7.10) implements a dynamically resizable array-based data structure. Linked lists can be maintained in sorted order by inserting each new element at the proper point in the list. Existing list elements do not need to be moved. Pointers merely need to be updated to point to the correct node.

Performance Tip 19.2 Insertion and deletion in a sorted

array

object or built-in array can be

time consuming—all the elements following the inserted or deleted element must be shifted appropriately. A linked list allows efficient insertion operations anywhere in the list.

Performance Tip 19.3 The elements of an

array

object or built-in array are stored

contiguously in memory. This allows immediate access to any element, because an element’s address can be calculated directly based on its position relative to the beginning of the array object or built-in array. Linked lists do not afford such immediate direct access to their elements, so accessing individual elements can be considerably more expensive. The selection of a data structure is typically based on the performance of specific operations used by a program and the order in which the data items are maintained in the data structure. For example, if you have a pointer to the insertion location, it’s typically more efficient to insert an item in a sorted linked list than a sorted array object or built-in array. Linked-list nodes typically are not stored contiguously in memory, but logically they appear to be contiguous. Figure 19.2 illustrates a linked list with several nodes.

Fig. 19.2 A graphical representation of a list.

Performance Tip 19.4 Using dynamic memory allocation for data structures that grow and shrink at execution time can save memory.

19.3.1 Testing Our Linked List Implementation The program of Figs. 19.3–19.5 uses a

List

class template to

manipulate a list of integer values and a list of floating-point values. The driver program (Fig. 19.3) has five options: insert a value at the beginning of the insert a value at the end of the

List

List

delete a value from the beginning of the delete a value from the end of the end the

List

List

List

processing

The linked list implementation we present here does not allow insertions and deletions anywhere in the linked list. We ask you to implement these operations in Exercise 19.25. Exercise 19.20 asks you to implement a recursive function that prints a linked list backwards, and Exercise 19.21 asks you to implement a recursive function that searches a linked list for a particular data item. In Fig. 19.3, Lines 66 and 70 create double ,

List

objects for types

respectively. Lines 67 and 71 invoke the

template to manipulate objects.

testList

int

and

function

Fig. 19.3 Manipulating a linked list.

19.3.2 Class Template ListNode Figure 19.3 uses class templates

ListNode

19.5). Encapsulated in each

object is a linked list of

objects. Class template members

data

and

List

ListNode

nextPtr

(Fig. 19.4) contains

data

ListNode friend .

ListNode

stores a value of type

ListNode

private

NODETYPE ,

nextPtr

stores a

List

as a

This makes all member functions of a given specialization of List

class template

ListNode ,

ListNode

friends of the corresponding specialization of so they can access the

private

members of

objects of that type. We do this for performance and because

these two classes are tightly coupled—only class template manipulates objects of class template template parameter in the

friend

NODETYPE

List

of

int

ListNode .

List

Because the

ListNode

is used as the template argument for

declaration,

ListNode s

type can be processed only by a (e.g., a

the type

object in the linked list. Line 12 of the

class template definition declares class

class template

List

(Fig.

(line 18) to return the

getData

parameter passed to the class template. Member pointer to the next

List

(lines 20–21), a constructor (lines 15–16)

to initialize these members and function data in a node. Member

(Fig. 19.4) and

List

values manages

values). To use the type name

specialized with a particular

specialized with the same type

ListNode

List

needs to know that class template

List

objects that store

int

in line 12, the compiler

exists. Line 8 is a so-called

forward declaration of class template

List .

A forward declaration

tells the compiler that a type exists, even if it has not yet been defined.

Error-Prevention Tip 19.1 Assign

nullptr

to the link member of a new node. Pointers must be

initialized before they’re used.

Fig. 19.4

ListNode

class-template definition.

19.3.3 Class Template List Lines 132–133 of the initialize to

nullptr

—pointers to the

List

the

private

List ’s

destroyed. The primary insertAtBack

removeFromBack

data members

first and last

13–29) destroys all of the 42),

class template (Fig. 19.5) declare and ListNode s.

List ’s ListNode

List

and

lastPtr

The destructor (lines

objects when the

functions are

(lines 45–55),

firstPtr

insertAtFront

removeFromFront

List

is

(lines 32–

(lines 58–76) and

(lines 79–105). We discuss each of these after Fig.

19.5. Function

isEmpty

(lines 108–110) is a predicate function that

determines whether the

List

129) displays the

contents. Utility function

List ’s

is empty. Function

136–138) returns a dynamically allocated function is called from functions

print

getNewNode

ListNode

insertAtFront

(lines 113–

and

(lines

object. This insertAtBack .

Fig. 19.5

List

class-template definition.

19.3.4 Member Function insertAtFront Over the next several pages, we discuss each of the member functions of class List in detail. Function insertAtFront (Fig. 19.5, lines 32–42) places a new node at the front of the list. The function consists of several steps: 1. Call function

getNewNode

(line 33), passing it

value ,

which is a

constant reference to the node value to be inserted. 2. Function getNewNode (lines 136–138) uses operator new to create a new list node and return a pointer to this newly allocated node, which is used to initialize newPtr in insertAtFront

(line 33).

3. If the list is empty (line 35), newPtr

firstPtr

and

lastPtr

are set to

(line 36)—i.e., the first and last node are the same

node. 4. If the list is not empty, then the node pointed to by threaded into the list by copying

firstPtr

to

newPtr

is

newPtr->nextPtr

(line 39), so that the new node points to what used to be the first node of the list, and copying newPtr to firstPtr (line 40), so that

firstPtr

now points to the new first node of the list.

Figure 19.6 illustrates the function

insertAtFront ’s

shows the list and the new node before calling

insertAtFront .

dashed arrows in part (b) illustrate Step 4 of the operation that enables the node containing

12

operation. Part (a)

insertAtFront

to become the new list

front.

Fig. 19.6 Operation

insertAtFront

The

represented graphically.

19.3.5 Member Function insertAtBack Function

insertAtBack

(Fig. 19.5, lines 45–55) places a new node at

the back of the list. The function consists of several steps: 1. Call function

getNewNode

(line 46), passing it

value ,

which is a

constant reference to the node value to be inserted. 2. Function getNewNode (lines 136–138) uses operator new to create a new list node and return a pointer to this newly allocated node, which is used to initialize newPtr in insertAtBack

(line 46).

3. If the list is empty (line 48), then both set to

newPtr

firstPtr

and

lastPtr

are

(line 49).

4. If the list is not empty, then the node pointed to by threaded into the list by copying

newPtr

into

newPtr

is

lastPtr->nextPtr

(line 52), so that the new node is pointed to by what used to be the last node of the list, and copying newPtr to lastPtr (line 53), so that

lastPtr

Figure 19.7 illustrates an

now points to the new last node of the list.

insertAtBack

operation. Part (a) of the figure

shows the list and the new node before the operation. The dashed

arrows in part (b) illustrate Step 4 of function

insertAtBack

that

enables a new node to be added to the end of a list that’s not empty.

19.3.6 Member Function removeFromFront Function

removeFromFront

(Fig. 19.5, lines 58–76) removes the front

node of the list and copies the node value to the reference parameter. The function returns false if an attempt is made to remove a node from an empty list (lines 59–61) and returns

true

if the removal is

successful. The function consists of several steps: 1. Initialize

tempPtr

63). Eventually, removed.

with the address to which tempPtr

firstPtr

points (line

will be used to delete the node being

Fig. 19.7 Operation 2. If

firstPtr

insertAtBack

is equal to

lastPtr

represented graphically.

(line 65), i.e., if the list has only

one element prior to the removal attempt, then set and

to

lastPtr

nullptr

firstPtr

(line 66) to dethread that node from the

list (leaving the list empty). 3. If the list has more than one node prior to removal, then leave lastPtr as is and set firstPtr to firstPtr->nextPtr (line 69; i.e., modify

firstPtr

to point to what was the second node prior

to removal (and is now the new first node). 4. After all these pointer manipulations are complete, copy to reference parameter value the data member of the node being removed (line 72). 5. Now delete the node pointed to by 6. Return

true ,

tempPtr

(line 73).

indicating successful removal (line 74).

Figure 19.8 illustrates function

removeFromFront .

Part (a) illustrates the

list before the removal operation. Part (b) shows the actual pointer manipulations for removing the front node from a nonempty list.

19.3.7 Member Function removeFromBack Function

removeFromBack

(Fig. 19.5, lines 79–105) removes the back

node of the list and copies the node value to the reference parameter. The function returns false if an attempt is made to remove a node from an empty list (lines 80–82) and returns

true

if the removal is

successful. The function consists of several steps: 1. Initialize

tempPtr

84). Eventually,

with the address to which tempPtr

removed. 2. If firstPtr is equal to

lastPtr

will be used to delete the node being

lastPtr

(line 86), i.e., if the list has only

one element prior to the removal attempt, then set and

lastPtr

to

nullptr

points (line

firstPtr

(line 87) to dethread that node from the

list (leaving the list empty).

Fig. 19.8 Operation

removeFromFront

represented graphically.

3. If the list has more than one node prior to removal, then initialize currentPtr with the address to which firstPtr points (line 90) to prepare to “walk the list.” 4. Now “walk the list” with currentPtr until it points to the node before the last node. This node will become the last node after the remove operation completes. This is done with a while loop (lines 93–95) that keeps replacing >nextPtr ,

5. Assign

while

lastPtr

currentPtr

currentPtr->nextPtr

is not

to the address to which

by

currentPtr-

lastPtr .

currentPtr

points (line

97) to dethread the back node from the list. 6. Set currentPtr->nextPtr to nullptr (line 98) in the new last node of the list.

7. After all the pointer manipulations are complete, copy to reference parameter value the data member of the node being removed (line 101). 8. Now delete the node pointed to by 9. Return

true

tempPtr

(line 102).

(line 103), indicating successful removal.

Figure 19.9 illustrates

removeFromBack .

Part (a) of the figure illustrates

the list before the removal operation. Part (b) of the figure shows the actual pointer manipulations.

19.3.8 Member Function print Function

print

(Fig. 19.5, lines 113–129) first determines whether the

list is empty (line 114). If so, it prints

"The list is empty"

and returns

(lines 115–116). Otherwise, it outputs the value in each node. The function initializes currentPtr with firstPtr (line 119), then prints the string

"The list is: "

123),

currentPtr->data

the value of

(line 121). While

currentPtr

is printed (line 124) and

currentPtr->nextPtr

is not

nullptr

currentPtr

(line

is assigned

Fig. 19.9 Operation

removeFromBack

represented graphically.

(line 125). Note that if the link in the last node of the list does not have the value nullptr , the printing algorithm will erroneously attempt to print past the end of the list. Our printing algorithm here is identical for linked lists, stacks and queues (because we base each of these data structures on the same linked list infrastructure).

19.3.9 Circular Linked Lists and Double Linked Lists The kind of linked list we’ve been discussing is a singly linked list— the list begins with a pointer to the first node, and each node contains a pointer to the next node “in sequence.” This list terminates with a node whose pointer member has the value nullptr . A singly linked list may be traversed in only one direction. A circular, singly linked list (Fig. 19.10) begins with a pointer to the first node, and each node contains a pointer to the next node. The “last node” does not contain nullptr ; rather, the pointer in the last node points back to the first node, thus closing the “circle.”

Fig. 19.10 Circular, singly linked list. A doubly linked list (Fig. 19.11)—such as the Standard Library

list

class template—allows traversals both forward and backward. Such a

list is often implemented with two “start pointers”—one that points to the first element of the list to allow front-to-back traversal of the list and one that points to the last element to allow back-to-front traversal. Each node has both a forward pointer to the next node in the list in the forward direction and a backward pointer to the next node in the list in the backward direction. If your list contains an alphabetized telephone directory, for example, a search for someone whose name begins with a letter near the front of the alphabet might best begin from the front of the list. Searching for someone whose name begins with a letter near the end of the alphabet might best begin from the back of the list.

Fig. 19.11 Doubly linked list. In a circular, doubly linked list (Fig. 19.12), the forward pointer of the last node points to the first node, and the backward pointer of the first node points to the last node, thus closing the “circle.”

Fig. 19.12 Circular, doubly linked list.

19.4 Stacks You learned the concept of a stack in Section 6.11, Section 15.7.1 ( stack adapter) and Section 18.2. Recall that a node can be added to a stack and removed from a stack only at its top, so a stack is referred to as a last-in, first-out (LIFO) data structure. One way to implement a stack is as a constrained version of a linked list. In such an implementation, the link member in the last node of the stack is set to nullptr to indicate the bottom of the stack. The primary member functions used to manipulate a stack are and

pop .

Function

Function pop

push

push

inserts a new node at the top of the stack.

removes a node from the top of the stack, stores the

popped value in a reference variable that’s passed to the calling function and returns true if the pop operation was successful ( false otherwise).

Applications of Stacks Stacks have many interesting applications: In Section 6.11, you learned that when a function call is made, the called function must know how to return to its caller, so the return address is pushed onto a stack. If a series of function calls occurs, the successive return values are pushed onto the stack in last-in,

first-out order, so that each function can return to its caller. Stacks support recursive function calls in the same manner as conventional nonrecursive calls. Stacks provide the memory for, and store the values of, automatic variables on each invocation of a function. When the function returns to its caller or throws an exception, the destructor (if any) for each local object is called, the space for that function’s automatic variables is popped off the stack and those variables are no longer known to the program. Stacks are used by compilers in the process of evaluating expressions and generating machine-language code. The exercises explore several applications of stacks, including using them to develop your own complete working compiler.

19.4.1 Taking Advantage of the Relationship Between Stack and List We’ll take advantage of the close relationship between lists and stacks to implement a stack class primarily by reusing our List class template. First, we’ll implement the inheritance from our

List

identically performing including a template.

List

Stack

class template via

private

class template. Then we’ll implement an

Stack

object as a

class template through composition by private

member of a

Stack

class

19.4.2 Implementing a Class Template Stack Class Based By Inheriting from List The program of Figs. 19.13–19.14 creates a (Fig. 19.13) primarily through

private

Stack

inheritance (line 9) of the

class template of Fig. 19.5. We want the

Stack

functions

pop

push

isStackEmpty

(Fig. 19.13, lines 12–14),

(lines 22–24) and

these are essentially the print

functions of the

the

public

Stack

(lines 17–19),

(lines 27–29). Note that

printStack

insertAtFront , removeFromFront , isEmpty

class template. Of course, the

List

interface to the

private

Stack

List

private

Stack ’s

in the

Stack

and

class template, we List

class template’s

class template. When we

member functions, we then have each of these

call the appropriate member function of the insertAtFront

insertAtBack

class

class. So when we indicate that the

inheritance. This makes all the

member functions implement the

List

and

that we would not want to make accessible through

class template is to inherit from the

specify

List

to have member

template contains other member functions (i.e., removeFromBack )

class template

(line 13),

pop

calls

List

class— push calls

removeFromFront

(line 18),

isStackEmpty

calls

isEmpty

(line 23) and

printStack

28)—this is referred to as delegation.

Fig. 19.13

Stack

class-template definition.

calls

print

(line

19.4.3 Dependent Names in Class Templates The explicit use of

this

on lines 23 and 28 is required so the compiler

can properly resolve identifiers in template definitions. A dependent name is an identifier that depends on a template parameter. For example, the call to removeFromFront (line 18) depends on the argument parameter

data

which has a type that’s dependent on the template

STACKTYPE .

Resolution of dependent names occurs when

the template is instantiated. In contrast, the identifier for a function that takes no arguments like isEmpty or print in the List superclass is a non-dependent name. Such identifiers are normally resolved at the point where the template is defined. If the template has not yet been instantiated, then the code for the function with the non-dependent name does not yet exist and some compilers will generate compilation errors. Adding the explicit use of this-> in lines 23 and 28 makes the calls to the base class’s member functions dependent on the template parameter and ensures that the code will compile properly.

19.4.4 Testing the Stack Class Template The stack class template is used in integer stack

intStack

are pushed onto

of type

intStack

main

Stack

of type

are pushed onto doubleStack

Stack

doubleStack

(lines 42–46).

(line 8). Integers 0 through 2

(lines 13–16), then popped off

(lines 21–25). The program uses the doubleStack

(Fig. 19.14) to instantiate

Stack

intStack

class template to create

(line 27). Values 1.1, 2.2 and 3.3

(lines 33–37), then popped off

Fig. 19.14 A simple stack program.

19.4.5 Implementing a Class Template Stack Class With Composition of a List Object Another way to implement a List

Stack

class template is by reusing the

class template through composition. Figure 19.15 is a new

implementation of the List Stack

Stack

class template that contains a

object called

stackList

class template uses class

List

(line 33). This version of the

from Fig. 19.5. To test this

class, use the driver program in Fig. 19.14, but include the new header— Stackcomposition.h —in line 4. The output of the program is identical for both versions of class

Stack .

Fig. 19.15

Stack

class template with a composed

List

object.

19.5 Queues Recall that queue nodes are removed only from the head of the queue and are inserted only at the tail of the queue. For this reason, a queue is referred to as a first-in, first-out (FIFO) data structure. The insert and remove operations are known as enqueue and dequeue .

19.5.1 Applications of Queues Queues have many applications in computer systems. Computers that have a single processor can service only one user at a time. Entries for the other users are placed in a queue. Each entry gradually advances to the front of the queue as users receive service. The entry at the front of the queue is the next to receive service. Queues are also used to support print spooling. For example, a single printer might be shared by all users of a network. Many users can send print jobs to the printer, even when the printer is already busy. These print jobs are placed in a queue until the printer becomes available. A program called a spooler manages the queue to ensure that, as each print job completes, the next print job is sent to the printer.

Information packets also wait in queues in computer networks. Each time a packet arrives at a network node, it must be routed to the next node on the network along the path to the packet’s final destination. The routing node routes one packet at a time, so additional packets are enqueued until the router can route them. A file server in a computer network handles file access requests from many clients throughout the network. Servers have a limited capacity to service requests from clients. When that capacity is exceeded, client requests wait in queues.

19.5.2 Implementing a Class Template Queue Class Based By Inheriting from List The program of Figs. 19.16–19.17 creates a (Fig. 19.16) through

private

template from Fig. 19.5. The (Fig. 19.16, lines 12–14), 22–24) and

printQueue

class template

inheritance (line 9) of the Queue

dequeue

List

has member functions

(lines 17–19),

class

enqueue

isQueueEmpty

(lines

(lines 27–29). These are essentially the

insertAt-Back , removeFromFront , isEmpty List

Queue

class template. Of course, the

List

and

print

functions of the

class template contains

other member functions that we do not want to make accessible through the public interface to the Queue class. So when we indicate

that the

Queue

class template is to inherit the

specify

private

inheritance. This makes all the

member functions implement the

List

private

Queue ’s

in the

Queue

class template, we class template’s

List

class template. When we

member functions, we have each of these call

the appropriate member function of the list class— enqueue calls insertAtBack

(line 13),

isQueueEmpty

calls

28). As with the

isEmpty

Stack

explicit use of the

dequeue

this

calls

removeFromFront

(line 23) and

printQueue

(line 18),

calls

print

(line

example in Fig. 19.13, this delegation requires pointer in

avoid compilation errors.

isQueueEmpty

and

printQueue

to

Fig. 19.16

Queue

class-template definition.

19.5.3 Testing the Queue Class

Template Figure 19.17 uses the queue

intQueue

enqueued to

Queue

of type

intQueue

class template to instantiate integer

Queue

(line 8). Integers 0 through 2 are

(lines 13–16), then dequeued from

intQueue

in

first-in, first-out order (lines 21–25). Next, the program instantiates queue doubleQueue of type Queue (line 27). Values 1.1, 2.2 and 3.3 are enqueued to doubleQueue

doubleQueue

(lines 33–37), then dequeued from

in first-in, first-out order (lines 42–46).

Fig. 19.17 Queue-processing program.

19.6 Trees Linked lists, stacks and queues are linear data structures. A tree is a nonlinear, two-dimensional data structure. Tree nodes contain two or more links. This section discusses binary trees (Fig. 19.18)—trees whose nodes all contain two links (none, one or both of which may have the value nullptr ).

19.6.1 Basic Terminology For this discussion, refer to nodes root node (node

B)

A, B, C

and

D

in Fig. 19.18. The

is the first node in a tree. Each link in the root

node refers to a child (nodes

A

and

D ).

The left child (node

root node of the left subtree (which contains only node right child (node

D)

contains nodes

and

D

A ),

A)

is the

and the

is the root node of the right subtree (which

siblings (e.g., nodes

C ). A

The children of a given node are called

and

a leaf node (e.g., nodes

A

D

are siblings). A node with no children is

and

C

are leaf nodes). Computer scientists

normally draw trees from the root node down—the opposite of how trees grow in nature.

Fig. 19.18 A graphical representation of a binary tree.

19.6.2 Binary Search Trees A binary search tree (with no duplicate node values) has the characteristic that the values in any left subtree are less than the value in its parent node, and the values in any right subtree are greater than the value in its parent node. Figure 19.19 illustrates a binary search tree with 9 values. Note that the shape of the binary search tree that corresponds to a set of data can vary, depending on the order in which the values are inserted into the tree.

Fig. 19.19 A binary search tree.

Implementing the Binary Search Tree Program The program of Figs. 19.20–19.22 creates a binary search tree and traverses it (i.e., walks through all its nodes) three ways—using recursive inorder, preorder and postorder traversals. We explain these traversal algorithms shortly.

19.6.3 Testing the Tree Class Template We begin our discussion with the driver program (Fig. 19.20), then continue with the implementations of classes TreeNode (Fig. 19.21) and

Tree

(Fig. 19.22). Function

instantiating integer tree

intTree

main

(Fig. 19.20) begins by

of type

Tree

(line 9). The

program prompts for 10 integers, each of which is inserted in the binary tree by calling insertNode (line 17). The program then performs preorder, inorder and postorder traversals (these are explained shortly) of intTree (lines 21, 24 and 27, respectively). Next, we instantiate floating-point tree then prompt for 10

double

binary tree by calling

doubleTree

of type

(line 29),

values, each of which is inserted in the

insertNode

(line 38). Finally, we perform

preorder, inorder and postorder traversals of and 48, respectively).

Tree

doubleTree

(lines 42, 45

Fig. 19.20 Creating and traversing a binary tree.

19.6.4 Class Template TreeNode The

TreeNode

class template (Fig. 19.21) definition declares

Tree

as its

friend

(line 12). This makes all member

functions of a given specialization of class template friend s

so they can access the

objects of that type. Because the TreeNode s

processed only by a int

private TreeNode

members of

values manages

value, and pointers

Tree

in the

friend

specialized with a particular type can be

Tree

Lines 20–22 declare a

TreeNode

template parameter

is used as the template argument for

declaration, of

(Fig. 19.22)

of the corresponding specialization of class template

TreeNode ,

NODETYPE

Tree

specialized with the same type (e.g., a

TreeNode

objects that store

TreeNode ’s private

leftPtr

int

Tree

values).

data—the node’s

(to the node’s left subtree) and

(to the node’s right subtree). Both pointers are initialized to

data rightPtr nullptr —

thus initializing this node to be a leaf node. The constructor (line 15) sets data to the value supplied as a constructor argument. Member function

getData

(line 18) returns the

data

value.

Fig. 19.21

TreeNode

class-template definition.

19.6.5 Class Template Tree Class template

Tree

(Fig. 19.22) has as

private

data

33), a pointer to the tree’s root node that’s initialized to indicate an empty tree. The class’s insertNode

public

rootPtr nullptr

(line to

member functions are

(lines 13–15) that inserts a new node in the tree and

preOrderTraversal

(lines 18–20),

postOrderTraversal

inOrderTraversal

(lines 23–25) and

(lines 28–30), each of which walks the tree in the

designated manner. Each of these member functions calls its own recursive utility function to perform the appropriate operations on the internal representation of the tree, so the program is not required to access the underlying private data to perform these functions. Remember that the recursion requires us to pass in a pointer that represents the next subtree to process.

Fig. 19.22

Tree

class-template definition.

19.6.6 Tree Member Function insertNodeHelper The

Tree

called by

class’s utility function insertNode

insertNodeHelper

(lines 37–58) is

(lines 13–15) to recursively insert a node into the

tree. A node can only be inserted as a leaf node in a binary search tree. If the tree is empty, a new TreeNode is created, initialized and inserted in the tree (lines 40–42). If the tree is not empty, the program compares the value to be inserted with the data value in the root node. If the insert value is smaller (line 45), the program recursively calls

insertNodeHelper

(line 46) to insert

the value in the left subtree. If the insert value is larger (line 50), the program recursively calls insertNodeHelper (line 51) to insert the value in the right subtree. If the value to be inserted is identical to the data value in the root node, the program prints the message " dup" (line 54) and returns without inserting the duplicate value into the tree. Note that insertNode passes the address of rootPtr to insertNodeHelper (line 14) so it can modify the value stored in of the root node). To receive a pointer to pointer),

insertNodeHelper ’s

pointer to a

TreeNode .

rootPtr

rootPtr

(i.e., the address

(which is also a

first argument is declared as a pointer to a

19.6.7 Tree Traversal Functions Member functions

preOrderTraversal

(lines 23–25) and

postOrderTraversal

(lines 18–20),

inOrderTraversal

(lines 28–30) traverse the tree

and print the node values. For the purpose of the following discussion, we use the binary search tree in Fig. 19.23.

Fig. 19.23 A binary search tree.

Inorder Traversal Algorithm Function

inOrderTraversal

invokes utility function

inOrderHelper

(lines

70–76) to perform the inorder traversal of the binary tree. The steps for an inorder traversal are: 1. Traverse the left subtree with an inorder traversal. (This is performed by the call to inOrderHelper at line 72.) 2. Process the value in the node—i.e., print the node value (line 73). 3. Traverse the right subtree with an inorder traversal. (This is performed by the call to inOrderHelper at line 74.)

The value in a node is not processed until the values in its left subtree are processed, because each call to inOrderHelper immediately calls inOrderHelper

again with the pointer to the left subtree. The inorder

traversal of the tree in Fig. 19.23 is

6 13 17 27 33 42 48

The inorder traversal of a binary search tree prints the node values in ascending order. The process of creating a binary search tree actually sorts the data—thus, this process is called the binary tree sort.

Preorder Traversal Algorithm Function

preOrderTraversal

invokes utility function

preOrderHelper

(lines 61–67) to perform the preorder traversal of the binary tree. The steps for a preorder traversal are: 1. Process the value in the node (line 63). 2. Traverse the left subtree with a preorder traversal. (This is performed by the call to preOrderHelper at line 64.) 3. Traverse the right subtree with a preorder traversal. (This is performed by the call to preOrderHelper at line 65.) The value in each node is processed as the node is visited. After the value in a given node is processed, the values in the left subtree are

processed. Then the values in the right subtree are processed. The preorder traversal of the tree in Fig. 19.23 is

27 13 6 17 42 33 48

Postorder Traversal Algorithm Function

postOrderTraversal

invokes utility function

postOrderHelper

(lines 79–85) to perform the postorder traversal of the binary tree. The steps for a postorder traversal are: 1. Traverse the left subtree with a postorder traversal. (This is performed by the call to postOrderHelper at line 81.) 2. Traverse the right subtree with a postorder traversal. (This is performed by the call to postOrderHelper at line 82.) 3. Process the value in the node (line 83). The value in each node is not printed until the values of its children are printed. The postOrderTraversal of the tree in Fig. 19.23 is

6 17 13 33 48 42 27

19.6.8 Duplicate Elimination The binary search tree facilitates duplicate elimination. As the tree is being created, an attempt to insert a duplicate value will be recognized, because a duplicate will follow the same “go left” or “go right” decisions on each comparison as the original value did when it was inserted in the tree. Thus, the duplicate will eventually be compared with a node containing the same value. The duplicate value may be discarded at this point. Searching a binary tree for a value that matches a key is also fast. If the tree is balanced, then each branch contains about half the nodes in the tree. Each comparison of a node to the search key eliminates half the nodes. This is called an O(log n) algorithm (Big O notation is discussed in Chapter 20). So a binary search tree with n elements would require a maximum of comparisons either to find a match or to determine that no match exists. For example, searching a (balanced) 1000-element binary search tree requires no more than 10 comparisons, because . Searching a (balanced) 1,000,000-element binary search tree requires no more than 20 comparisons, because .

19.6.9 Overview of the Binary Tree Exercises In the exercises, algorithms are presented for several other binary tree operations such as deleting an item from a binary tree, printing a binary tree in a two-dimensional tree format and performing a levelorder traversal of a binary tree. The level-order traversal of a binary tree visits the nodes of the tree row by row, starting at the root node level. On each level of the tree, the nodes are visited from left to right. Other binary tree exercises include allowing a binary search tree to contain duplicate values, inserting string values in a binary tree and determining how many levels are contained in a binary tree.

19.7 Wrap-Up In this chapter, you learned that linked lists are collections of data items that are “linked up in a chain.” You also learned that a program can perform insertions and deletions anywhere in a linked list (though our implementation performed insertions and deletions only at the ends of the list). We demonstrated that the stack and queue data structures are constrained versions of lists. For stacks, you saw that insertions and deletions are made only at the top. For queues, you saw that insertions are made at the tail and deletions are made from the head. We also presented the binary tree data structure. You saw a binary search tree that facilitated high-speed searching and sorting of data and efficient duplicate elimination. You learned how to create these data structures for reusability (as templates) and maintainability. In the next chapter, we study various searching and sorting techniques and implement them as function templates.

Summary

Section 19.1 Introduction Dynamic data structures (p. 798) grow and shrink during execution. Linked lists (p. 798) are collections of data items “lined up in a row”—insertions and removals are made anywhere in a linked list. Stacks (p. 798) are important in compilers and operating systems: Insertions and removals are made only at one end of a stack—its top (p. 798). Queues (p. 798) represent waiting lines; insertions are made at the back (also referred to as the tail; p. 798) of a queue and removals are made from the front (also referred to as the head; p. 798). Binary trees (p. 798) facilitate high-speed searching and sorting of data, efficient duplicate elimination, representation of file-system directories and compilation of expressions into machine code.

Section 19.2 Self-Referential Classes A self-referential class (p. 799) contains a pointer that points to an object of the same class type. Self-referential class objects can be linked together to form useful data structures such as lists, queues, stacks and trees.

Section 19.3 Linked Lists A linked list is a linear collection of self-referential class objects, called nodes, connected by pointer links (p. 800)—hence, the term “linked” list. A linked list is accessed via a pointer to the first node of the list. Each subsequent node is accessed via the link-pointer member stored in the previous node and the last node contains a null pointer. Linked lists, stacks and queues are linear data structures (p. 800). Trees are nonlinear data structures (p. 800). A linked list is appropriate when the number of data elements to be represented is unpredictable. Linked lists are dynamic, so the length of a list can increase or decrease as necessary. A singly linked list begins with a pointer to the first node, and each node contains a pointer to the next node “in sequence.” A circular, singly linked list (p. 813) begins with a pointer to the first node, and each node contains a pointer to the next node. The “last node” does not contain a null pointer; rather, the pointer in the last node points back to the first node, thus closing the “circle.” A doubly linked list (p. 814) allows traversals both forward and backward. A doubly linked list is often implemented with two “start pointers”— one that points to the first element to allow front-to-back traversal of the list and one that points to the last element to allow back-to-

front traversal. Each node has a pointer to both the next and previous nodes. In a circular, doubly linked list (p. 814), the forward pointer of the last node points to the first node, and the backward pointer of the first node points to the last node, thus closing the “circle.”

Section 19.4 Stacks A stack data structure allows nodes to be added to and removed from the stack only at the top. A stack is referred to as a last-in, first-out (LIFO) data structure. Function push inserts a new node at the top of the stack. Function pop

removes a node from the top of the stack.

A dependent name (p. 816) is an identifier that depends on the value of a template parameter. Resolution of dependent names occurs when the template is instantiated. Non-dependent names (p. 816) are resolved at the point where the template is defined.

Section 19.5 Queues A queue is similar to a supermarket checkout line—the first person in line is serviced first, and other customers enter the line at the end and wait to be serviced. Queue nodes are removed only from a queue’s head and are inserted only at its tail. A queue is referred to as a first-in, first-out (FIFO) data structure. The insert and remove operations are known as enqueue and dequeue

(p. 819).

Section 19.6 Trees Binary trees (p. 823) are trees whose nodes all contain two links (none, one or both of which may have the value nullptr ). The root node (p. 823) is the first node in a tree. Each link in the root node refers to a child. The left child is the root node of the left subtree (p. 823), and the right child is the root node of the right subtree (p. 823). The children of a single node are called siblings (p. 823). A node with no children is called a leaf node (p. 823). A binary search tree (p. 824) (with no duplicate node values) has the characteristic that the values in any left subtree are less than the value in its parent node (p. 824), and the values in any right subtree are greater than the value in its parent node. A node can only be inserted as a leaf node in a binary search tree. An inorder traversal (p. 824) of a binary tree traverses the left subtree, processes the value in the root node then traverses the right subtree. The value in a node is not processed until the values in its left subtree are processed. An inorder traversal of a binary search tree processes the nodes in sorted order. A preorder traversal (p. 824) processes the value in the root node, traverses the left subtree, then traverses the right subtree. The value in each node is processed as the node is encountered. A postorder traversal (p. 824) traverses the left subtree, traverses the right subtree, then processes the root node’s value. The value in each node is not processed until the values in both subtrees are processed.

The binary search tree helps eliminate duplicate data (p. 830). As the tree is being created, an attempt to insert a duplicate value will be recognized and the duplicate value may be discarded. The level-order traversal (p. 831) of a binary tree visits the nodes of the tree row by row, starting at the root node level. On each level of the tree, the nodes are visited from left to right.

Self-Review Exercises 1. 19.1 Fill in the blanks in each of the following: A. A selfclass is used to form dynamic data structures that can grow and shrink at execution time B. The operator is used to dynamically allocate memory and construct an object; this operator returns a pointer to the object. C. A(n) is a constrained version of a linked list in which nodes can be inserted and deleted only from the start of the list and node values are returned in last-in, first-out order. D. A function that does not alter a linked list, but looks at the list to determine whether it’s empty, is an example of a(n) function. E. A queue is referred to as a(n) data structure, because the first nodes inserted are the first nodes removed. F. The pointer to the next node in a linked list is referred to as a(n) . G. The operator is used to destroy an object and release dynamically allocated memory. H. A(n) is a constrained version of a linked list in which nodes can be inserted only at the end of the list and deleted only from the start of the list.

I. A(n) is a nonlinear, two-dimensional data structure that contains nodes with two or more links. J. A stack is referred to as a(n) data structure, because the last node inserted is the first node removed. K. The nodes of a(n) tree contain two link members. L. The first node of a tree is the node. M. Each link in a tree node points to a(n) or of that node. N. A tree node that has no children is called a(n) node. O. The four traversal algorithms we mentioned in the text for binary search trees are , , and . 2. 19.2 What are the differences between a linked list and a stack? 3. 19.3 What are the differences between a stack and a queue? 4. 19.4 Perhaps a more appropriate title for this chapter would have been “Reusable Data Structures.” Comment on how each of the following entities or concepts contributes to the reusability of data structures: A. classes B. class templates C. inheritance D. private inheritance E. composition

5. 19.5 Provide the inorder, preorder and postorder traversals of the binary search tree of Fig. 19.24.

Fig. 19.24 A 15-node binary search tree.

Exercises 1. 19.6 (Concatenating Lists) Write a program that concatenates two linked list objects of characters. The program should include function concatenate , which takes references to both list objects as arguments and concatenates the second list to the first list. 2. 19.7 (Merging Ordered Lists) Write a program that merges two ordered list objects of integers into a single ordered list object of integers. Function merge should receive references to

3.

4.

5.

6.

each of the list objects to be merged and a reference to a list object into which the merged elements will be placed. 19.8 (Summing and Averaging Elements in a List) Write a program that inserts 25 random integers from 0 to 100 in order in a linked list object. The program should calculate the sum of the elements and the floating-point average of the elements. 19.9 (Copying a List in Reverse Order) Write a program that creates a linked list object of 10 characters and creates a second list object containing a copy of the first list, but in reverse order. 19.10 (Printing a Sentence in Reverse Order with a Stack) Write a program that inputs a line of text and uses a stack object to print the line reversed. 19.11 (Palindrome Testing with Stacks) Write a program that uses a stack object to determine if a string is a palindrome (i.e.,

the string is spelled identically backward and forward). The program should ignore spaces and punctuation. 7. 19.12 (Infix-to-Postfix Conversion) Stacks are used by compilers to help in the process of evaluating expressions and generating machine language code. In this and the next exercise, we investigate how compilers evaluate arithmetic expressions consisting only of constants, operators and parentheses. Humans generally write expressions like 3 + 4 and 7 / 9 in which the operator ( + or

/

here) is written between its

operands—this is called infix notation. Computers “prefer” postfix notation in which the operator is written to the right of its two operands. The preceding infix expressions would appear in postfix notation as 3 4 + and 7 9 / , respectively. To evaluate a complex infix expression, a compiler would first convert the expression to postfix notation and evaluate the postfix version of the expression. Each of these algorithms requires only a single left-to-right pass of the expression. Each algorithm uses a stack object in support of its operation, and in each algorithm the stack is used for a different purpose. In this exercise, you’ll write a C++ version of the infix-to-postfix conversion algorithm. In the next exercise, you’ll write a C++ version of the postfix expression evaluation algorithm. Later in the chapter, you’ll discover that code you write in this exercise can help you implement a complete working compiler. Write a program that converts an ordinary infix arithmetic expression (assume a valid expression is entered) with singledigit integers such as

(6 + 2) * 5 - 8 / 4

to a postfix expression. The postfix version of the preceding infix expression is

6 2 + 5 * 8 4 / -

The program should read the expression into

string infix

and

use modified versions of the stack functions implemented in this chapter to help create the postfix expression in string postfix .

The algorithm for creating a postfix expression is as

follows: A. Push a left parenthesis

'('

B. Append a right parenthesis

onto the stack. ')'

to the end of

C. While the stack is not empty, read and do the following: If the current character in the next element of

infix

infix

infix .

from left to right

is a digit, copy it to

postfix .

If the current character in

infix

is a left parenthesis,

push it onto the stack. If the current character in

infix

is an operator,

Pop operators (if there are any) at the top of the stack while they have equal or higher precedence

than the current operator, and insert the popped operators in postfix . Push the current character in stack. If the current character in

infix

infix

onto the

is a right parenthesis

Pop operators from the top of the stack and insert them in postfix until a left parenthesis is at the top of the stack. Pop (and discard) the left parenthesis from the stack. The following arithmetic operations are allowed in an expression: + addition -

subtraction

*

multiplication

/

division

^

exponentiation

%

remainder

[Note: We assume left-to-right associativity for all operators in this exercise.] The stack should be maintained with stack nodes, each containing a data member and a pointer to the next stack node. Some of the functional capabilities you may want to provide are:

A. function

that converts the infix

convertToPostfix

expression to postfix notation B. function isOperator that determines whether

c

is an

operator C. function precedence that determines whether the precedence of

operator1

precedence of

operator2 ,

D. function

push

E. function

pop

F. function

stackTop

is greater than or equal to the and, if so, returns

true

that pushes a value onto the stack

that pops a value off the stack that returns the top value of the stack

without popping the stack G. function isEmpty that determines if the stack is empty H. function

printStack

that prints the stack

8. 19.13 (Postfix Evaluation) Write a program that evaluates a valid postfix expression such as

6 2 + 5 * 8 4 / -

The program should read a postfix expression consisting of digits and operators into a string . Using modified versions of the stack functions implemented earlier in this chapter, the program should scan the expression and evaluate it. The algorithm is as follows:

A. While you have not reached the end of the

string ,

read

the expression from left to right. If the current character is a digit, Push its integer value onto the stack (the integer value of a digit character is its value in the computer’s character set minus the value of '0' in the computer’s character set). Otherwise, if the current character is an operator, Pop the two top elements of the stack into variables x and y . Calculate

y

operator

x.

Push the result of the calculation onto the stack. B. When you reach the end of the

string ,

pop the top value

of the stack. This is the result of the postfix expression. [Note: In Step 2 above, if the operator is stack is into

x,

2

'/' ,

the top of the

and the next element in the stack is

pop

8

into

y,

evaluate

8 / 2

8,

then pop

and push the result,

back onto the stack. This note also applies to operator The arithmetic operations allowed in an expression are + addition –

subtraction

*

multiplication

/

division

^

exponentiation

2

4,

'–' .]

%

remainder

[Note: We assume left-to-right associativity for all operators for the purpose of this exercise.] The stack should be maintained with stack nodes that contain an int data member and a pointer to the next stack node. You may want to provide the following functional capabilities: A. function evaluatePostfixExpression that evaluates the postfix expression B. function calculate that evaluates the expression

op1

operator op2

C. function

push

that pushes a value onto the stack

D. function

pop

E. function

isEmpty

F. function

printStack

that pops a value off the stack that determines if the stack is empty that prints the stack

9. 19.14 (Postfix Evaluation Enhanced) Modify the postfix evaluator program of Exercise 19.13 so that it can process integer operands larger than 9. 10. 19.15 (Supermarket Simulation) Write a program that simulates a checkout line at a supermarket. The line is a queue object. Customers (i.e., customer objects) arrive in random integer intervals of 1–4 minutes. Also, each customer is served in random integer intervals of 1–4 minutes. Obviously, the rates need to be balanced. If the average arrival rate is larger than the average service rate, the queue will grow infinitely. Even with “balanced” rates, randomness can still cause long lines.

Run the supermarket simulation for a 12-hour day (720 minutes) using the following algorithm: A. Choose a random integer from 1 to 4 to determine the minute at which the first customer arrives. B. At the first customer’s arrival time: Determine customer’s service time (random integer from 1 to 4); Begin servicing the customer; Schedule arrival time of next customer (random integer 1 to 4 added to the current time). C. For each minute of the day: If the next customer arrives, Say so, enqueue the customer, and schedule the arrival time of the next customer; If service was completed for the last customer; Say so, dequeue next customer to be serviced and determine customer’s service completion time (random integer from 1 to 4 added to the current time). Now run your simulation for 720 minutes, and answer each of the following: A. What’s the maximum number of customers in the queue at any time? B. What’s the longest wait any one customer experiences? C. What happens if the arrival interval is changed from 1–4 minutes to 1–3 minutes?

11. 19.16 (Allowing Duplicates in Binary Trees) Modify the program of Figs. 19.20–19.22 to allow the binary tree object to contain duplicates. 12. 19.17 (Binary Tree of Strings) Write a program based on Figs. 19.20–19.22 that inputs a line of text, tokenizes the sentence into separate words (you may want to use the istringstream library class), inserts the words in a binary search tree and prints the inorder, preorder and postorder traversals of the tree. Use an OOP approach. 13. 19.18 (Duplicate Elimination) In this chapter, we saw that duplicate elimination is straightforward when creating a binary search tree. Describe how you’d perform duplicate elimination using only a one-dimensional array. Compare the performance of array-based duplicate elimination with the performance of binary-search-tree-based duplicate elimination. 14. 19.19 (Depth of a Binary Tree) Write a function depth that receives a binary tree and determines how many levels it has. 15. 19.20 (Recursively Print a List Backward) Write a member function printListBackward that recursively outputs the items in a linked list object in reverse order. Write a test program that creates a sorted list of integers and prints the list in reverse order. 16. 19.21 (Recursively Search a List) Write a member function searchList that recursively searches a linked list object for a specified value. The function should return a pointer to the value if it’s found; otherwise, nullptr should be returned. Use your function in a test program that creates a list of integers.

The program should prompt the user for a value to locate in the list. 17. 19.22 (Binary Tree Search) Write member function binaryTreeSearch , which attempts to locate a specified value in a binary search tree object. The function should take as arguments a pointer to the binary tree’s root node and a search key to locate. If the node containing the search key is found, the function should return a pointer to that node; otherwise, the function should return a nullptr pointer. 18. 19.23 (Level-Order Binary Tree Traversal) The program of Figs. 19.20–19.22 illustrated three recursive methods of traversing a binary tree—inorder, preorder and postorder traversals. This exercise presents the level-order traversal of a binary tree, in which the node values are printed level by level, starting at the root node level. The nodes on each level are printed from left to right. The level-order traversal is not a recursive algorithm. It uses a queue object to control the output of the nodes. The algorithm is as follows: A. Insert the root node in the queue B. While there are nodes left in the queue, Get the next node in the queue Print the node’s value If the pointer to the left child of the node is not nullptr

Insert the left child node in the queue If the pointer to the right child of the node is not nullptr

Insert the right child node in the queue.

Write member function

levelOrder

to perform a level-order

traversal of a binary tree object. Modify the program of Figs. 19.20–19.22 to use this function. [Note: You’ll also need to modify and incorporate the queue-processing functions of Fig. 19.16 in this program.] 19. 19.24 (Printing Trees) Write a recursive member function outputTree to display a binary tree object on the screen. The function should output the tree row by row, with the top of the tree at the left of the screen and the bottom of the tree toward the right of the screen. Each row is output vertically. For example, the binary tree illustrated in Fig. 19.24 is output as shown in Fig. 19.25. Note that the rightmost leaf node appears at the top of the output in the rightmost column and the root node appears at the left of the output. Each column of output starts five spaces to the right of the previous column. Function outputTree should receive an argument totalSpaces representing the number of spaces preceding the value to be output (this variable should start at zero, so the root node is output at the left of the screen). The function uses a modified inorder traversal to output the tree— it starts at the rightmost node in the tree and works back to the left. The algorithm is as follows: While the pointer to the current node is not nullptr Recursively call subtree and Use a

for

outputTree

totalSpaces

with the current node’s right

+5

structure to count from 1 to

output spaces

totalSpaces

and

Output the value in the current node Set the pointer to the current node to point to the left subtree of the current node Increment totalSpaces by 5.

Fig. 19.25 Sample output for Exercise 19.24. 20. 19.25 (Insert/Delete Anywhere in a Linked List) Our linked list class template allowed insertions and deletions at only the front and the back of the linked list. These capabilities were convenient for us when we used private inheritance and composition to produce a stack class template and a queue class template with a minimal amount of code by reusing the list class template. Actually, linked lists are more general than those we provided. Modify the linked list class template we developed in this chapter to handle insertions and deletions anywhere in the list. 21. 19.26 (List and Queues without Tail Pointers) Our implementation of a linked list (Figs. 19.4–19.5) used both a firstPtr and a lastPtr . The lastPtr was useful for the insertAtBack

and

removeFromBack

member functions of the

List

class. The

insertAtBack

member function of the that it does not use a

function corresponds to the Queue

lastPtr .

class. Rewrite the

enqueue

List

class so

Thus, any operations on the tail

of a list must begin searching the list from the front. Does this affect our implementation of the Queue class (Fig. 19.16)? 22. 19.27 (Performance of Binary Tree Sorting and Searching) One problem with the binary tree sort is that the order in which the data is inserted affects the shape of the tree—for the same collection of data, different orderings can yield binary trees of dramatically different shapes. The performance of the binary tree sorting and searching algorithms is sensitive to the shape of the binary tree. What shape would a binary tree have if its data were inserted in increasing order? in decreasing order? What shape should the tree have to achieve maximal searching performance? 23. 19.28 (Indexed Lists) As presented in the text, linked lists must be searched sequentially. For large lists, this can result in poor performance. A common technique for improving list searching performance is to create and maintain an index to the list. An index is a set of pointers to various key places in the list. For example, an application that searches a large list of names could improve performance by creating an index with 26 entries—one for each letter of the alphabet. A search operation for a last name beginning with "Y" would first search the index to determine where the

"Y"

entries begin and “jump into” the

list at that point and search linearly until the desired name was found. This would be much faster than searching the linked list

from the beginning. Use the the basis of an

IndexedList

List

class of Figs. 19.4–19.5 as

class. Write a program that

demonstrates the operation of indexed lists. Be sure to include member functions insertInIndexedList , searchIndexedList and deleteFromIndexedList .

Special Section: Building Your Own Compiler In Exercises 8.15–8.17, we introduced Simpletron Machine Language (SML), and you implemented a Simpletron computer simulator to execute SML programs. In Exercises 19.29–19.33, we build a compiler that converts programs written in a high-level programming language to SML. This section “ties” together the entire programming process. You’ll write programs in this new high-level language, compile them on the compiler you build and run them on the simulator you built in Exercise 8.16. You should make every effort to implement your compiler in an object-oriented manner. [Note: Due to the size of the descriptions for Exercises 19.29–19.33, we’ve posted them in a PDF document located at http://www.deitel.com/books/cpphtp10/ .]

Answers to Self-Review Exercises 1. 19.1 A. referential. B. new . C. D. E. F. G.

stack. predicate. first-in, first-out (FIFO). link. delete .

H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O.

queue. tree. last-in, first-out (LIFO). binary. root. child or subtree. leaf. inorder, preorder, postorder and level order.

2. 19.2 It’s possible to insert a node anywhere in a linked list and remove a node from anywhere in a linked list. Nodes in a stack may only be inserted at the top of the stack and removed from the top of a stack. 3. 19.3 A queue data structure allows nodes to be removed only from the head of the queue and inserted only at the tail of the queue. A queue is referred to as a first-in, first-out (FIFO) data

structure. A stack data structure allows nodes to be added to the stack and removed from the stack only at the top. A stack is referred to as a last-in, first-out (LIFO) data structure. 4. 19.4 A. Classes allow us to instantiate as many data structure objects of a certain type (i.e., class) as we wish. B. Class templates enable us to instantiate related classes, each based on different type parameters—we can then generate as many objects of each template class as we like. C. Inheritance enables us to reuse code from a base class in a derived class, so that the derived-class data structure is also a base-class data structure (with public inheritance, that is). D. Private inheritance enables us to reuse portions of the code from a base class to form a derived-class data structure; because the inheritance is private , all public base-class member functions become

private

in the

derived class. This enables us to prevent clients of the derived-class data structure from accessing base-class member functions that do not apply to the derived class. E. Composition enables us to reuse code by making a class object data structure a member of a composed class; if we make the class object a private member of the composed class, then the class object’s

public

member functions are not available through the composed object’s interface.

5. 19.5 The inorder traversal is

11 18 19 28 32 40 44 49 69 71 72 83 92 97 99

The preorder traversal is

49 28 18 11 19 40 32 44 83 71 69 72 97 92 99

The postorder traversal is

11 19 18 32 44 40 28 69 72 71 92 99 97 83 49

20 Searching and Sorting

Objectives In this chapter you’ll: Search for a given value in an search. Sort an

array

array

using linear search and binary

using insertion sort, selection sort and the recursive

merge sort algorithms. Use Big O notation to express the efficiency of searching and sorting algorithms and to compare their performance. Understand the nature of algorithms of constant, linear and quadratic runtime.

Outline 1. 20.1 Introduction 2. 20.2 Searching Algorithms A. 20.2.1 Linear Search B. 20.2.2 Binary Search 3. 20.3 Sorting Algorithms A. 20.3.1 Insertion Sort B. 20.3.2 Selection Sort C. 20.3.3 Merge Sort (A Recursive Implementation) 4. 20.4 Wrap-Up 1. 2. 3. 4.

Summary Self-Review Exercises Answers to Self-Review Exercises Exercises

20.1 Introduction Searching data involves determining whether a value (referred to as the search key) is present in the data and, if so, finding the value’s location. Two popular search algorithms are the simple linear search (Section 20.2.1) and the faster but more complex binary search (Section 20.2.2). Sorting places data in ascending or descending order, based on one or more sort keys. A list of names could be sorted alphabetically, bank accounts could be sorted by account number, employee payroll records could be sorted by social security number, and so on. You’ll learn about insertion sort (Section 20.3.1), selection sort (Section 20.3.2) and the more efficient, but more complex merge sort (Section 20.3.3). Figure 20.1 summarizes the searching and sorting algorithms discussed in the book’s examples and exercises. This chapter also introduces Big O notation, which is used to characterize an algorithm’s worst-case runtime—that is, how hard an algorithm may have to work to solve a problem. Fig. 20.1 Searching and sorting algorithms in this text. Algorithm

Location

Searching Algorithms Linear search

Algorithm

Location

Sorting Algorithms Section 20.2.1

Insertion sort

Section 20.3.1

Binary search

Section

Selection sort

Section 20.3.2

Recursive merge sort

Section 20.3.3

Bubble sort

Exercises

20.2.2 Recursive linear search

Exercise 20.8

Recursive binary search

Exercise 20.9

Binary tree search

Section

20.5–20.6 Bucket sort

Exercise 20.7

Recursive quicksort

Exercise

19.6 Linear search (linked list)

Exercise 19.21

binary_search standard

Section

library function

16.4.6

20.10 Binary tree sort

Section 19.6

sort standard

Section 16.4.6

library function

A Note About This Chapter’s Examples The searching and sorting algorithms in this chapter are implemented as function templates that manipulate objects of the array class template. To help you visualize how certain algorithms work, some of the examples display array -element values throughout the searching or sorting process. These output statements slow an algorithm’s performance and would not be included in industrial-strength code.

20.2 Searching Algorithms Looking up a phone number, accessing a website and checking a word’s definition in a dictionary all involve searching through large amounts of data. A searching algorithm finds an element that matches a given search key, if such an element does, in fact, exist. There are, however, a number of things that differentiate search algorithms from one another. The major difference is the amount of effort they require to complete the search. One way to describe this effort is with Big O notation. For searching and sorting algorithms, this is particularly dependent on the number of data elements. In Section 20.2.1, we present the linear search algorithm then discuss the algorithm’s efficiency as measured by Big O notation. In Section 20.2.2, we introduce the binary search algorithm, which is much more efficient but more complex to implement.

20.2.1 Linear Search In this section, we discuss the simple linear search for determining whether an unsorted array (i.e., an array with element values that are in no particular order) contains a specified search key. Exercise 20.8 at the end of this chapter asks you to implement a recursive version of the linear search.

Function Template linearSearch Function template

linearSearch

each element of an

array

(Fig. 20.2, lines 10–19) compares

with a search key (line 13). Because the

array is not in any particular order, it’s just as likely that the search key will be found in the first element as the last. On average, therefore, the program must compare the search key with half of the array ’s elements. To determine that a value is not in the must compare the search key to every

array

array ,

the program

element. Linear search

works well for small or unsorted arrays. However, for large arrays, linear searching is inefficient. If the array is sorted (e.g., its elements are in ascending order), you can use the high-speed binary search technique (Section 20.2.2).

Fig. 20.2 Linear search of an array.

Big O: Constant Runtime Suppose an algorithm simply tests whether the first element of an array is equal to the second element. If the array has 10 elements, this algorithm requires only one comparison. If the

array

has 1000

elements, the algorithm still requires only one comparison. In fact, the algorithm is independent of the number of array elements. This algorithm is said to have a constant runtime, which is represented in Big O notation as O(1). An algorithm that’s O(1) does not necessarily require only one comparison. O(1) just means that the number of comparisons is constant—it does not grow as the size of the array increases. An algorithm that tests whether the first element of an array is equal to any of the next three elements will always require three comparisons, but in Big O notation it’s still considered O(1). O(1) is often pronounced “on the order of 1” or more simply “order 1.”

Big O: Linear Runtime An algorithm that tests whether the first element of an to any of the other elements of the

array

array

requires at most

comparisons, where n is the number of elements in the array

is equal

array .

If the

has 10 elements, the algorithm requires up to nine

comparisons. If the

array

has 1000 elements, the algorithm requires

up to 999 comparisons. As n grows larger, the n part of the expression “dominates,” and subtracting one becomes inconsequential. Big O is designed to highlight these dominant terms and ignore terms that become unimportant as n grows. For this reason, an algorithm that requires a total of comparisons (such as the one we described in this paragraph) is said to be O(n) and is referred to as having a linear runtime. O(n) is often pronounced “on the order of n” or more simply “order n.”

Big O: Quadratic Runtime Now suppose you have an algorithm that tests whether any element of an array is duplicated elsewhere in the array . The first element must be compared with all the other elements. The second element must be compared with all the other elements except the first (it was already compared to the first). The third element then must be compared with all the other elements except the first two. In the end, this algorithm will end up making or comparisons. As n increases, the term dominates and the n term becomes inconsequential. Again, Big O notation highlights the term, leaving . As we’ll soon see, even constant factors, such as the 1/2 here, are omitted in Big O notation. Big O is concerned with how an algorithm’s runtime grows in relation to the number of items processed. Suppose an algorithm requires comparisons. With four elements, the algorithm will require 16 comparisons; with eight elements, 64 comparisons. With this algorithm, doubling the number of elements quadruples the number of comparisons. Consider a similar algorithm requiring comparisons. With four elements, the algorithm will require eight comparisons; with eight elements, 32 comparisons. Again, doubling the number of elements quadruples the number of comparisons. Both of these algorithms grow as the square of n, so Big O ignores the constant, and both algorithms are considered to be

, which is

referred to as quadratic runtime and pronounced “on the order of nsquared” or more simply “order n-squared.”

Performance When n is small,

algorithms (running on today’s billions-of-

operations-per-second personal computers) will not noticeably affect performance. But as n grows, you’ll start to notice the performance degradation. An

algorithm running on a million-element

array

would require a trillion “operations” (where each could actually require several machine instructions to execute). This could require hours to execute. A billion-element array would require a quintillion operations, a number so large that the algorithm could take decades! Unfortunately,

algorithms tend to be easy to write. In this

chapter, you’ll see algorithms with more favorable Big O measures. Such efficient algorithms often take a bit more cleverness and effort to create, but their superior performance can be worth the extra effort, especially as n gets large.

Linear Search’s Runtime The linear search algorithm runs in O(n) time. The worst case in this algorithm is that every element must be checked to determine whether the search key is in the array . If the array ’s size doubles, the number of comparisons that the algorithm must perform also doubles. Linear search can provide outstanding performance if the element matching the search key happens to be at or near the front of the array . But we seek algorithms that perform well, on average, across all searches, including those where the element matching the search key is near the end of the array . If a program needs to perform many searches on large

array s,

it may be better to implement a different, more efficient

algorithm, such as the binary search which we consider in the next section.

Performance Tip 20.1 Sometimes the simplest algorithms perform poorly. Their virtue is that they’re easy to program, test and debug. Sometimes more complex algorithms are required to maximize performance.

20.2.2 Binary Search The binary search algorithm is more efficient than the linear search algorithm, but it requires that the array first be sorted. This is only worthwhile when the

array ,

once sorted, will be searched a great

many times—or when the searching application has stringent performance requirements. The first iteration of this algorithm tests the middle array element. If this matches the search key, the algorithm ends. Assuming the

array

is sorted in ascending order, then if the

search key is less than the middle element, the search key cannot match any element in the array ’s second half so the algorithm continues with only the first half (i.e., the first element up to, but not including, the middle element). If the search key is greater than the middle element, the search key cannot match any element in the array ’s first half so the algorithm continues with only the second half (i.e., the element after the middle element through the last element). Each iteration tests the middle value of the array ’s remaining elements. If the element does not match the search key, the algorithm eliminates half of the remaining elements. The algorithm ends either by finding an element that matches the search key or by reducing the sub- array to zero size.

Binary Search of 15 Integer Values As an example, consider the sorted 15-element

2

3

5

10

27

30

34

51

56

65

77

81

array

82

93

99

and the search key 65. A binary search first checks whether the middle element (51) is the search key. The search key (65) is larger than 51, so 51 is eliminated from consideration along with the first half of the array (all elements smaller than 51.) Next, the algorithm checks whether 81 (the middle element of the remaining elements) matches the search key. The search key (65) is smaller than 81, so 81 is eliminated from consideration along with the elements larger than 81. After just two tests, the algorithm has narrowed the number of elements to check to three (56, 65 and 77). The algorithm then checks 65 (which matches the search key), and returns the element’s index (9). In this case, the algorithm required just three comparisons to determine whether the array contained the search key. Using a linear search algorithm would have required 10 comparisons. [Note: In this example, we’ve chosen to use an array with 15 elements, so that there will always be an obvious middle element in the even number of elements, the middle of the

array

array .

With an

lies between two

elements. We implement the algorithm to choose the element with the higher index number.]

Binary Search Example Figure 20.3 implements and demonstrates the binary-search algorithm. Throughout the program’s execution, we use function template displayElements (lines 11–23) to display the portion of the array

that’s currently being searched.

Fig. 20.3 Binary search of an array.

Function Template binarySearch Lines 26–59 define function template parameters—a reference to the

array

binarySearch ,

to search and a reference to the

search key. Lines 28–30 calculate the

low

and

array

middle

index of the portion of the

currently searching. When

binarySearch

is the

and

array ’s

size minus

values. Line 31 initializes

1

middle

location

to

which has two

end index,

high

end index

that the algorithm is

is first called,

low

is

is the average of these two

-1 —the

value that

binarySearch

returns if the search key is not found. Lines 33–56 loop until greater than location

high

key .

low

is

(indicating that the element was not found) or

does not equal

-1

(indicating that the search key was

found). Line 45 tests whether the value in the to

0 , high

If so, line 46 assigns the

loop terminates and

location

middle

middle

index to

element is equal

location .

Then the

is returned to the caller. Each iteration of

the loop that does not find the search key tests a single value (line 48) and eliminates half of the remaining values in the array (line 49 or 51).

Function main Lines 64–66 set up a random-number generator for 10 – 99 .

Lines 68–74 create an

array

int

and fill it with random

Recall that the binary search algorithm requires a sorted 76 calls the Standard Library function

values from

sort

to sort

elements into ascending order. Line 78 displays

int s.

array ,

so line

arrayToSearch ’s

arrayToSearch ’s

sorted contents. Lines 88–105 loop until the user enters the value

-1 .

For each search

key the user enters, the program performs a binary search of arrayToSearch to determine whether it contains the search key. The first line of output from this program shows

arrayToSearch ’s

contents in

ascending order. When the user instructs the program to search for 48 , the program first tests the middle element, which is 60 (as indicated by

* ).

The search key is less than

eliminates the second half of the from the first half of the

array .

program returns the index

3

array

60 ,

so the program

and tests the middle element

The search key equals

48 ,

so the

after performing just two comparisons.

The output also shows the results of searching for the values 22 .

92

and

Efficiency of Binary Search In the worst-case scenario, searching a sorted

array

of 1023

elements will take only 10 comparisons when using a binary search. Repeatedly dividing 1023 by 2 (because, after each comparison, we can eliminate from consideration half of the remaining elements) and rounding down (because we also remove the middle element) yields the values 511, 255, 127, 63, 31, 15, 7, 3, 1 and 0. The number 1023 is divided by 2 only 10 times to get the value 0, which indicates that there are no more elements to test. Dividing by 2 is equivalent to one comparison in the binary search algorithm. Thus, an array of 1,048,575

elements takes a maximum of 20 comparisons

to find the key, and an

array

of approximately one billion elements

takes a maximum of 30 comparisons to find the key. This is a tremendous performance improvement over the linear search. For a one-billion-element array , this is a difference between an average of 500 million comparisons for the linear search and a maximum of only 30 comparisons for the binary search! The maximum number of comparisons needed for the binary search of any sorted array is the exponent of the first power of 2 greater than the number of elements in the array , which is represented as . All logarithms grow at roughly the same rate, so in Big O notation the base can be omitted. This results in a Big O of O(log n) for a binary search, which is also known as logarithmic runtime and pronounced “on the order of log n” or more simply “order log n.”

20.3 Sorting Algorithms Sorting data (i.e., placing the data into some particular order, such as ascending or descending) is one of the most important computing applications. A bank sorts all of its checks by account number so that it can prepare individual bank statements at the end of each month. Telephone companies sort their lists of accounts by last name and, further, by first name to make it easy to find phone numbers. Virtually every organization must sort some data, and often, massive amounts of it. Sorting data is an intriguing, computer-intensive problem that has attracted intense research efforts. An important point to understand about sorting is that the end result— the sorted array —will be the same no matter which algorithm you use to sort the

array .

Your algorithm choice affects only the algorithm’s

runtime and memory use. The next two sections introduce the selection sort and insertion sort—simple algorithms to implement, but inefficient. In each case, we examine the efficiency of the algorithms using Big O notation. We then present the merge sort algorithm, which is much faster but is more difficult to implement.

20.3.1 Insertion Sort Figure 20.4 uses insertion sort—a simple, but inefficient, sorting algorithm—to sort a 10-element array ’s values into ascending order. Function template algorithm.

insertionSort

(lines 9–25) implements the

Fig. 20.4 Sorting an array into ascending order with insertion sort.

Insertion Sort Algorithm The algorithm’s first iteration takes the

array ’s

second element and, if

it’s less than the first element, swaps it with the first element (i.e., the algorithm inserts the second element in front of the first element). The second iteration looks at the third element and inserts it into the correct position with respect to the first two elements, so all three elements are in order. At the ith iteration of this algorithm, the first i elements in the original array will be sorted.

First Iteration Line 29 declares and initializes the

array

named

data

with the

following values:

34

56

4

10

Line 38 passes the receives the items[0]

array

and

77

array

51

93

to the

in parameter

items[1] ,

30

5

52

insertionSort items .

function, which

The function first looks at

whose values are

34

and

56 ,

respectively.

These two elements are already in order, so the algorithm continues— if they were out of order, the algorithm would swap them.

Second Iteration In the second iteration, the algorithm looks at the value of (that is,

4 ).

This value is less than

temporary variable and moves

56

algorithm then determines that

4

56 ,

items[2]

so the algorithm stores

4

in a

one element to the right. The is less than

34 ,

so it moves

34

one

element to the right. At this point, the algorithm has reached the beginning of the array , so it places 4 in items[0] . The array now is

4

34

56

10

77

51

93

30

5

52

Third Iteration and Beyond In the third iteration, the algorithm places the value of is,

10 )

in the correct location with respect to the first four

elements. The algorithm compares

10

to

56

element to the right because it’s larger than compares

10

to

34 ,

compares

10

to

4,

in

items[1] .

4

items[3]

10

moving

34

and moves 10 .

(that

array 56

one

Next, the algorithm

right one element. When the algorithm

it observes that

10

is larger than

4

and places

10

The array now is

34

56

77

51

93

30

5

52

Using this algorithm, after the ith iteration, the first i + 1

array

elements are sorted. They may not be in their final locations, however, because the algorithm might encounter smaller values later in the array .

Function Template insertionSort Function template

insertionSort

which iterates over the

array ’s

temporarily stores in variable

performs the sorting in lines 12–24,

elements. In each iteration, line 13

insert

the value of the element that will

be inserted into the

array ’s

initializes the variable

sorted portion. Line 14 declares and

moveIndex ,

which keeps track of where to insert

the element. Lines 17–21 loop to locate the correct position where the element should be inserted. The loop terminates either when the program reaches the array ’s first element or when it reaches an element that’s less than the value to insert. Line 19 moves an element to the right, and line 20 decrements the position at which to insert the next element. After the while loop ends, line 23 inserts the element into place. When the array ’s

for

statement in lines 12–24 terminates, the

elements are sorted.

Big O: Efficiency of Insertion Sort Insertion sort is simple, but inefficient, sorting algorithm. This becomes apparent when sorting large arrays. Insertion sort iterates times, inserting an element into the appropriate position in the elements sorted so far. For each iteration, determining where to insert the element can require comparing the element to each of the preceding elements—n – 1 comparisons in the worst case. Each individual iteration statement runs in O(n) time. To determine Big O notation, nested statements mean that you must multiply the number of comparisons. For each iteration of an outer loop, there will be a certain number of iterations of the inner loop. In this algorithm, for each O(n) iteration of the outer loop, there will be O(n) iterations of the inner loop, resulting in a Big O of O(n * n) or

.

20.3.2 Selection Sort Figure 20.5 uses the selection sort algorithm—another easy-toimplement, but inefficient, sorting algorithm—to sort a 10-element array ’s values into ascending order. Function template selectionSort (lines 9–27) implements the algorithm.

Fig. 20.5 Sorting an array into ascending order with selection sort.

Selection Sort Algorithm The algorithm’s first iteration selects the smallest element value and swaps it with the first element’s value. The second iteration selects the second-smallest element value (which is the smallest of the remaining elements) and swaps it with the second element’s value. The algorithm continues until the last iteration selects the second-largest element and swaps it with the second-to-last element’s value, leaving the largest value in the last element. After the ith iteration, the smallest i values will be sorted into increasing order in the first i array elements.

First Iteration Line 31 declares and initializes the

array

named

data

with the

following values:

34

56

4

10

77

51

93

30

5

52

The selection sort first determines the smallest value (4) in the array, which is in element 2. The algorithm swaps 4 with the value in element 0 (34), resulting in

4

56

34

10

77

51

93

30

5

52

Second Iteration The algorithm then determines the smallest value of the remaining elements (all elements except 4), which is 5, contained in element 8. The program swaps the 5 with the 56 in element 1, resulting in

4

5

34

10

77

51

93

30

56

52

Third Iteration On the third iteration, the program determines the next smallest value, 10, and swaps it with the value in element 2 (34).

4

5

10

34

77

51

93

30

56

52

The process continues until the array is fully sorted.

4

5

10

30

34

51

52

56

77

93

After the first iteration, the smallest element is in the first position; after the second iteration, the two smallest elements are in order in the first two positions and so on.

Function Template selectionSort Function template The loop iterates variable

selectionSort

size - 1

indexOfSmallest ,

performs the sorting in lines 12–26.

times. Line 13 declares and initializes the

which stores the index of the smallest

element in the unsorted portion of the

array .

Lines 16–20 iterate over

the remaining array elements. For each element, line 17 compares the current element’s value to the value at indexOfSmallest . If the current

element is smaller, line 18 assigns the current element’s index to indexOfSmallest . When this loop finishes, indexOfSmallest contains the index of the smallest element remaining in the then swap the elements at positions temporary variable assigned

hold

to store

i

and

array .

Lines 23–25

indexOfSmallest ,

items[i] ’s

using the

value while that element is

items[indexOfSmallest] .

Efficiency of Selection Sort The selection sort algorithm iterates times, each time swapping the smallest remaining element into its sorted position. Locating the smallest remaining element requires comparisons during the first iteration, during the second iteration, then , 2, 1. This results in a total of

or

comparisons. In Big O notation, smaller terms drop out and constants are ignored, leaving a Big O of algorithms that perform better than

. Can we develop sorting ?

20.3.3 Merge Sort (A Recursive Implementation) Merge sort is an efficient sorting algorithm but is conceptually more complex than insertion sort and selection sort. The merge sort algorithm sorts an array by splitting it into two equal-sized subarray s, array .

sorting each sub- array then merging them into one larger

With an odd number of elements, the algorithm creates the two

sub- array s such that one has one more element than the other. Merge sort performs the merge by looking at each sub- array ’s first element, which is also the smallest element in that sub- array . Merge sort takes the smallest of these and places it in the first element of merged sorted array . If there are still elements in the sub- array , merge sort looks at the second element in that sub- array (which is now the smallest element remaining) and compares it to the first element in the other sub- array . Merge sort continues this process until the merged

array

is filled. Once a sub- array has no more

elements, the merge copies the other the merged array.

array ’s

remaining elements into

Sample Merge Suppose the algorithm has already merged smaller sorted

4

array s

array s

to create

A:

10

34

56

77

30

51

52

93

and B:

5

Merge sort merges these

array s

into a sorted

array .

The smallest

value in A is 4 (located in the zeroth element of A). The smallest value in B is 5 (located in the zeroth element of B). In order to determine the smallest element in the larger array , the algorithm compares 4 and 5. The value from A is smaller, so 4 becomes the value of the first element in the merged array . The algorithm continues by comparing 10 (the value of the second element in A) to 5 (the value of the first element in B). The value from B is smaller, so 5 becomes the value of the second element in the larger array . The algorithm continues by comparing 10 to 30, with 10 becoming the value of the third element in the array , and so on.

Recursive Implementation Our merge sort implementation is recursive. The base case is an array with one element. Such an array is, of course, sorted, so merge sort immediately returns when it’s called with a one-element The recursion step splits an

array

array .

of two or more elements into two

equal-sized sub- array s, recursively sorts each sub- array , then merges them into one larger, sorted

array .

[Again, if there is an odd

number of elements, one sub- array is one element larger than the other.]

Demonstrating Merge Sort Figure 20.6 implements and demonstrates the merge sort algorithm. Throughout the program’s execution, we use function template displayElements (lines 10–22) to display the portions of the array that are currently being split and merged. Function templates (lines 25–48) and

merge

algorithm. Function

main

mergeSort

(lines 51–98) implement the merge sort (lines 100–125) creates an

array ,

populates

it with random integers, executes the algorithm (line 120) and displays the sorted array. The output from this program displays the splits and merges performed by merge sort, showing the progress of the sort at each step of the algorithm.

Fig. 20.6 Sorting an array into ascending order with merge sort.

Function mergeSort Recursive function the

array

mergeSort

to sort and the

low

(lines 25–48) receives as parameters and

high

indices of the range of

elements to sort. Line 28 tests the base case. If the the

low

index is

high

index minus

(i.e., a one-element sub- array ), the function simply

returns. If the difference between the indices is greater than or equal to 1 , the function splits the array in two—lines 29–30 determine the split point. Next, line 42 recursively calls function array ’s

the

mergeSort

first half, and line 43 recursively calls function

array ’s

on the

mergeSort

on

second half. When these two function calls return, each

half is sorted. Line 46 calls function halves to combine the two sorted

merge

array s

(lines 51–98) on the two

into one larger sorted

array .

Function merge Lines 67–76 in function

merge

loop until the program reaches the end

of either sub- array . Line 70 tests which element at the beginning of the two sub- array s is smaller. If the element in the left sub- array is smaller or both are equal, line 71 places it in position in the combined array . If the element in the right sub- array is smaller, line 74 places it in position in the combined

array .

When the

one entire sub- array is in the combined array

while

array ,

loop completes,

but the other sub-

still contains data. Line 78 tests whether the left sub- array has

reached the end. If so, lines 79–81 fill the combined

array

with the

elements of the right sub- array . If the left sub- array has not reached the end, then the right sub- array must have reached the end, and lines 84–86 fill the combined array . array .

array

with the elements of the left sub-

Finally, lines 90–92 copy the combined

array

into the original

Efficiency of Merge Sort Merge sort is a far more efficient algorithm than either insertion sort or selection sort— although that may be difficult to believe when looking at the busy output in Fig. 20.6. Consider the first (nonrecursive) call to function mergeSort (line 120). This results in two recursive calls to function

mergeSort

the original merge

with sub- array s that are each approximately half

array ’s

size, and a single call to function

requires, at worst,

merge .

The call to

comparisons to fill the original

which is O(n). (Recall that each

array

array ,

element is chosen by

comparing one element from each of the sub- array s.) The two calls to function

mergeSort

mergeSort —each

of the original to function

result in four more recursive calls to function

with a sub- array approximately one-quarter the size

array —and

merge

two calls to function

merge .

These two calls

each require, at worst, n/2 – 1 comparisons, for a

total number of comparisons of O(n). This process continues, each call to mergeSort generating two additional calls to mergeSort and a call to

merge ,

until the algorithm has split the

array

into one-element

sub- array s. At each level, O(n) comparisons are required to merge the sub- array s. Each level splits the size of the doubling the size of the the size of the

array

array

array s

in half, so

requires one more level. Quadrupling

requires two more levels. This pattern is

logarithmic and results in efficiency of O(n log n).

n levels. This results in a total

Summary of Searching and Sorting Algorithm Efficiencies Figure 20.7 summarizes the searching and sorting algorithms we cover in this chapter and lists the Big O for each. Figure 20.8 lists the Big O categories we’ve covered in this chapter along with a number of values for n to highlight the differences in the growth rates. Fig. 20.7 Searching and sorting algorithms with Big O values. Algorithm

Location

Big O

Linear search

Section 20.2.1

O(n)

Binary search

Section 20.2.2

O(log n)

Recursive linear search

Exercise 20.8

O(n)

Recursive binary search

Exercise 20.9

O(log n)

Searching Algorithms

Sorting Algorithms Insertion sort

Section 20.3.1

Selection sort

Section 20.3.2

Merge sort

Section 20.3.3

Bubble sort

Exercises 20.5–20.6

O(n log n)

Quicksort

Exercise 20.10

Worst case: Average case: O(n log n)

Fig. 20.8 Approximate number of comparisons for common Big O notations. n

Approximate decimal value

O(log n)

1000

10

1,000,000

20

1,000,000,000

30

O(n)

O(n log n)

20.4 Wrap-Up This chapter discussed searching and sorting data. We began by discussing searching. We first presented the simple, but inefficient linear search algorithm. Then, we presented the binary search algorithm, which is faster but more complex than linear search. Next, we discussed sorting data. You learned two simple, but inefficient sorting techniques—insertion sort and selection sort. Then, we presented the merge sort algorithm, which is more efficient than either the insertion sort or the selection sort. Throughout the chapter we also introduced Big O notation, which helps you express the efficiency of an algorithm by measuring the worst-case runtime of an algorithm. Big O is useful for comparing algorithms so that you can choose the most efficient one. In the next chapter, we discuss typical stringmanipulation operations provided by class template basic_string . We also introduce string stream-processing capabilities that allow strings to be input from and output to memory.

Summary

Section 20.1 Introduction Searching data involves determining whether a search key (p. 842) is present in the data and, if so, returning its location. Sorting (p. 842) involves arranging data into order. One way to describe the efficiency of an algorithm is with Big O notation (p. 842), which indicates how much work an algorithm must do to solve a problem.

Section 20.2 Searching Algorithms A key difference among searching algorithms is the amount of effort they require to return a result.

Section 20.2.1 Linear Search The linear search (p. 843) compares each array element with a search key. Because the array is not in any particular order, it’s just as likely that the value will be found in the first element as the last. On average, the algorithm must compare the search key with half the array elements. To determine that a value is not in the array ,

the algorithm must compare the search key to every

element in the

array .

Big O describes how an algorithm’s effort varies depending on the number of elements in the data. An algorithm that’s O(1) has a constant runtime (p. 844)—the number of comparisons does not grow as the size of the array increases. An O(n) algorithm is referred to as having a linear runtime (p. 845). Big O highlights dominant factors and ignores terms that are unimportant with high values of n. Big O notation represents the growth rate of algorithm runtimes, so constants are ignored. The linear search algorithm runs in O(n) time. In the worst case for linear search every element must be checked to determine whether the search element exists. This occurs if the search key is the last element in the array or is not present.

Section 20.2.2 Binary Search Binary search (p. 846) is more efficient than linear search, but it requires that the array first be sorted. This is worthwhile only when the

array ,

once sorted, will be searched many times.

The first iteration of binary search tests the middle element. If this is the search key, the algorithm returns its location. If the search key is less than the middle element, binary search continues with the first half of the array . If the search key is greater than the middle element, binary search continues with the second half. Each iteration tests the middle value of the remaining array and, if the element is not found, eliminates from consideration half of the remaining elements. Binary search is more efficient than linear search, because with each comparison it eliminates from consideration half of the elements in the array . Binary search runs in O(log n) (p. 850) time. If the size of the array is doubled, binary search requires only one extra comparison to complete.

Section 20.3.1 Insertion Sort The first iteration of an insertion sort (p. 851) takes the second element and, if it’s less than the first element, swaps it with the first element (i.e., the algorithm inserts the second element in front of the first element). The second iteration looks at the third element and inserts it into the correct position with respect to the first two elements, so all three elements are in order. At the ith iteration of this algorithm, the first i elements in the original array will be sorted. For small arrays, the insertion sort is acceptable, but for larger arrays it’s inefficient compared to other more sophisticated sorting algorithms. The insertion sort algorithm runs in

time.

Section 20.3.2 Selection Sort The first iteration of selection sort (p. 853) selects the smallest element and swaps it with the first element. The second iteration selects the second-smallest element (which is the smallest remaining element) and swaps it with the second element. This continues until the last iteration selects the second-largest element and swaps it with the second-to-last index, leaving the largest element in the last index. At the ith iteration, the smallest i elements are sorted into the first i elements. The selection sort algorithm runs in

time.

Section 20.3.3 Merge Sort (A Recursive Implementation) Merge sort (p. 855) is faster, but more complex to implement, than insertion sort and selection sort. The merge sort algorithm sorts an array by splitting the array into two equal-sized sub- array s, sorting each sub- array and merging the sub- array s into one larger Merge sort’s base case is an

array .

array

with one element, which is

already sorted. The merge part of merge sort takes two sorted array s (these could be one-element array s) and combines them into one larger sorted

array .

Merge sort performs the merge by looking at the first element in each array , which is also the smallest element in each. Merge sort takes the smallest of these and places it in the first element of the larger, sorted array . If there are still elements in the sub- array , merge sort looks at the second element in that sub- array (which is now the smallest element remaining) and compares it to the first element in the other sub- array . Merge sort continues this process until the larger

array

is filled.

In the worst case, the first call to merge sort has to make O(n) comparisons to fill the n slots in the final array . The merging portion of the merge sort algorithm is performed on two sub- array s, each of approximately size n/2. Creating each of these sub- array s requires n/2 – 1 comparisons for each sub-

array ,

or O(n) comparisons total. This pattern continues, as each

level works on twice as many the previous

array s,

but each is half the size of

array .

Similar to binary search, this halving results in log n levels, each level requiring O(n) comparisons, for a total efficiency of O(n logn) (p. 861).

Self-Review Exercises 1. 20.1 Fill in the blanks in each of the following statements: A. A selection sort application would take approximately times as long to run on a 128-element array as on a 32-element

array .

B. The efficiency of merge sort is

.

2. 20.2 What key aspect of both the binary search and the merge sort accounts for the logarithmic portion of their respective Big Os? 3. 20.3 In what sense is the insertion sort superior to the merge sort? In what sense is the merge sort superior to the insertion sort? 4. 20.4 In the text, we say that after the merge sort splits the array into two sub- array s, it then sorts these two sub- array s and merges them. Why might someone be puzzled by our statement that “it then sorts these two sub- array s”?

Exercises 1. 20.5 (Bubble Sort) Implement the bubble sort algorithm— another simple yet inefficient sorting technique. It’s called bubble sort or sinking sort because smaller values gradually “bubble” their way to the top of the array (i.e., toward the first element) like air bubbles rising in water, while the larger values sink to the bottom (end) of the array . The technique uses nested loops to make several passes through the

array .

Each

pass compares successive pairs of elements. If a pair is in increasing order (or the values are equal), the bubble sort leaves the values as they are. If a pair is in decreasing order, the bubble sort swaps their values in the array . The first pass compares the first two element values of the array and swaps them if necessary. It then compares the second and third element values in the

array .

The end of this

pass compares the last two element values in the

array

and

swaps them if necessary. After one pass, the largest value will be in the last element. After two passes, the largest two values will be in the last two elements. Explain why bubble sort is an algorithm. 2. 20.6 (Enhanced Bubble Sort) Make the following simple modifications to improve the performance of the bubble sort you developed in Exercise 20.5:

A. After the first pass, the largest value is guaranteed to be in the highest-numbered element of the array ; after the second pass, the two highest values are “in place”; and so on. Instead of making nine comparisons (for a 10element array ) on every pass, modify the bubble sort to make only the eight necessary comparisons on the second pass, seven on the third pass, and so on. B. The data in the array may already be in the proper order or near-proper order, so why make nine passes (of a 10element array ) if fewer will suffice? Modify the sort to check at the end of each pass whether any swaps have been made. If none have been made, the data must already be in the proper order, so the program should terminate. If swaps have been made, at least one more pass is needed. 3. 20.7 (Bucket Sort) A bucket sort begins with a onedimensional array of positive integers to be sorted and a twodimensional

array

of integers with rows indexed from 0 to 9

and columns indexed from 0 to n – 1, where n is the number of values to be sorted. Each row of the two-dimensional array is referred to as a bucket. Write a class named containing a function called

sort

BucketSort

that operates as follows:

A. Place each value of the one-dimensional row of the bucket

array ,

array

into a

based on the value’s “ones”

(rightmost) digit. For example, 97 is placed in row 7, 3 is

placed in row 3 and 100 is placed in row 0. This procedure is called a distribution pass. B. Loop through the bucket array row by row, and copy the values back to the original

array .

This procedure is

called a gathering pass. The new order of the preceding values in the one-dimensional array is 100, 3 and 97. C. Repeat this process for each subsequent digit position (tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.). On the second (tens digit) pass, 100 is placed in row 0, 3 is placed in row 0 (because 3 has no tens digit) and 97 is placed in row 9. After the gathering pass, the order of the values in the one-dimensional array is 100, 3 and 97. On the third (hundreds digit) pass, 100 is placed in row 1, 3 is placed in row 0 and 97 is placed in row 0 (after the 3). After this last gathering pass, the original array is in sorted order. Note that the two-dimensional length of the integer

array

array

of buckets is 10 times the

being sorted. This sorting technique

provides better performance than a bubble sort, but requires much more memory—the bubble sort requires space for only one additional element of data. This comparison is an example of the space–time trade-off: The bucket sort uses more memory than the bubble sort, but performs better. This version of the bucket sort requires copying all the data back to the original array on each pass. Another possibility is to create a second two-dimensional bucket

array

and repeatedly swap the data

between the two bucket

array s.

4. 20.8 (Recursive Linear Search) Modify Fig. 20.2 to use recursive function recursiveLinearSearch to perform a linear search of the

array .

The function should receive the

array ,

the

search key and starting index as arguments. If the search key is found, return its index in the array ; otherwise, return –1 . Each call to the recursive function should check one element value in the array . 5. 20.9 (Recursive Binary Search) Modify Fig. 20.3 to use recursive function recursiveBinarySearch to perform a binary search of the

array .

The function should receive the

array ,

the

search key, starting index and ending index as arguments. If the search key is found, return its index in the array . If the search key is not found, return

–1 .

6. 20.10 (Quicksort) The recursive sorting technique called quicksort uses the following basic algorithm for a onedimensional array of values: A. Partitioning Step: Take the first element of the unsorted array and determine its final location in the sorted array (i.e., all values to the left of the element in the

array

are

less than the element’s value, and all values to the right of the element in the array are greater than the element’s value—we show how to do this below). We now have one value in its proper location and two unsorted sub- array s. B. Recursion Step: Perform the Partitioning Step on each unsorted sub- array .

Each time Step 1 is performed on a sub- array , another element is placed in its final location of the sorted array, and two unsorted sub- array s are created. When a sub- array consists of one element, that sub- array must be sorted; therefore, that element is in its final location. The basic algorithm seems simple enough, but how do we determine the final position of the first element of each subarray ? As an example, consider the following set of values (the element in bold is the partitioning element—it will be placed in its final location in the sorted array):

37

2

6

4

89

8

10

12

68

45

Starting from the rightmost element of the array, compare each element with 37 until an element less than 37 is found. Then swap 37 and that element. The first element less than 37 is 12, so 37 and 12 are swapped. The values now reside in the array as follows:

12

2

6

4

89

8

10

37

68

45

Element 12 is in italics to indicate that it was just swapped with 37. Starting from the left of the array, but beginning with the element after 12, compare each element with 37 until an

element greater than 37 is found. Then swap 37 and that element. The first element greater than 37 is 89, so 37 and 89 are swapped. The values now reside in the array as follows:

12

2

6

4

37

8

10

89

68

45

Starting from the right, but beginning with the element before 89, compare each element with 37 until an element less than 37 is found. Then swap 37 and that element. The first element less than 37 is 10, so 37 and 10 are swapped. The values now reside in the array as follows:

12

2

6

4

10

8

37

89

68

45

Starting from the left, but beginning with the element after 10, compare each element with 37 until an element greater than 37 is found. Then swap 37 and that element. There are no more elements greater than 37, so when we compare 37 with itself, we know that 37 has been placed in its final location of the sorted array. Once the partition has been applied to the array, there are two unsorted sub- array s. The sub- array with values less than 37 contains 12, 2, 6, 4, 10 and 8. The sub- array with values greater than 37 contains 89, 68 and 45. The sort continues with

both sub- array s being partitioned in the same manner as the original array. Based on the preceding discussion, write recursive function quickSort to sort a single-subscripted integer array. The function should receive as arguments an integer array, a starting subscript and an ending subscript. Function partition should be called by

quickSort

to perform the partitioning step.

Answers to Self-Review Exercises 1. 20.1 A. 16, because an

algorithm takes 16 times as

long to sort four times as much information. B. O(n log n). 2. 20.2 Both of these algorithms incorporate “halving”—somehow reducing something by half. The binary search eliminates from consideration half of the array after each comparison. The merge sort splits the

array

in half each time it’s called.

3. 20.3 The insertion sort is easier to understand and to implement than the merge sort. The merge sort is far more efficient (O(n log n)) than the insertion sort (

).

4. 20.4 In a sense, it does not really sort these two sub- array s. It simply keeps splitting the original

array

in half until it provides a

one-element sub- array , which is, of course, sorted. It then builds up the original two sub- array s by merging these oneelement

array s

to form larger sub- array s, which are then

merged, and so on.

21 Class string and String Stream Processing: A Deeper

Objectives In this chapter you’ll: Manipulate Determine

string string

objects. characteristics.

Find, replace and insert characters in Convert Use

string

string

string s.

objects to pointer-based strings and vice versa.

iterators.

Perform input from and output to

string s

in memory.

Use C++11 numeric conversion functions.

Outline 1. 21.1 Introduction 2. 21.2 string Assignment and Concatenation 3. 21.3 Comparing

string s

4. 21.4 Substrings 5. 21.5 Swapping string s 6. 21.6

string

Characteristics

7. 21.7 Finding Substrings and Characters in a 8. 21.8 Replacing Characters in a 9. 21.9 Inserting Characters into a

string string

10. 21.10 Conversion to Pointer-Based 11. 12. 13. 14. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

string

char *

Strings

21.11 Iterators 21.12 String Stream Processing 21.13 C++11 Numeric Conversion Functions 21.14 Wrap-Up Summary Self-Review Exercises Answers to Self-Review Exercises Exercises Making a Difference

21.1 Introduction1 1. Various

string

features we discuss in this chapter were also

presented in Chapter 21. We kept all the features in this chapter for completeness and for people who may read the chapters out of order.

The class template

basic_string

provides typical string-manipulation

operations such as copying, searching, etc. The template definition and all support facilities are defined in namespace std ; these include the

typedef

statement

typedef basic_string string;

that creates the alias type also provided for the

string

wchar_t

for

basic_string .

type ( wstring ). Type

A

wchar_t 2

typedef

is

stores

characters (e.g., two-byte characters, four-byte characters, etc.) for supporting other character sets. We use string exclusively throughout this chapter. To use 2. Type

wchar_t

wchar_t ’s char16_t

string s,

include header

.

commonly is used to represent Unicode®, but

size is not specified by the standard. C++11 also has types and

char32_t

for Unicode support. The Unicode Standard

outlines a specification to produce consistent encoding of the world’s characters and symbols. To learn more about the Unicode Standard, visit

www.unicode.org .

Initializing a string Object A

string

object can be initialized with a constructor argument as in

string text{"Hello"}; // creates a string from a const char*

which creates a

string

containing the characters in

"Hello" ,

or with

two constructor arguments as in

string name{8, 'x'}; // string of 8 'x' characters

which creates a

string

containing eight

'x'

characters. Class

string

also provides a default constructor (which creates an empty string) and a copy constructor. A string also can be initialized in its definition as in

string month = "March"; // same as: string month{"March"};

Remember that

=

in the preceding declaration is not an assignment;

rather it’s an implicit call to the

string

class constructor, which does

the conversion. 11

string s Are Not Necessarily Null

Terminated Unlike pointer-based

char*

strings,

string

objects are not necessarily

null terminated. The C++ standard document provides only a description of the capabilities of class string —implementation is platform dependent.

Length of a string The length of a

string

can be retrieved with member function

and with member function

length

. The subscript operator,

does not perform bounds checking), can be used with access and modify individual characters. A subscript of

and a last subscript of

Processing string s

string

size() – 1 .

[]

string s

size

(which to

object has a first

Most

string

member functions take as arguments a starting subscript

location and the number of characters on which to operate.

string I/O The stream extraction operator ( >> ) is overloaded to support

string s.

The statements

string stringObject; cin >> stringObject;

declare a

string

object and read a

string

from

cin .

Input is delimited

by whitespace characters. When a delimiter is encountered, the input operation is terminated. Function getline also is overloaded for string s.

Assuming

string1

is a

string ,

the statement

getline(cin, string1);

reads a

string

from the keyboard into

newline ( '\n' ), so

getLine

string1 .

Input is delimited by a

can read a line of text into a

string

object.

You can specify an alternate delimiter as the optional third argument to getline .

Validating Input In earlier chapters, we mentioned the importance of validating user input in industrial-strength code. The capabilities presented in this chapter—and the regular-expression capabilities shown in Section 24.14—are frequently used to perform validation.

21.2 string Assignment and Concatenation Figure 21.1 demonstrates 4 includes header string2

and

value of

string1

is a copy of

string

for class

string .

The

string s string1 ,

are created in lines 8–10. Line 12 assigns the

string3

to

assignment and concatenation. Line

string2 .

string1 .

After the assignment takes place,

Line 13 uses member function

string1

into

string3 .

A separate copy is made (i.e.,

string3

are independent objects). Class

overloaded version of member function

string

assign

assign

string2

to copy

string1

and

also provides an

that copies a specified

number of characters, as in

targetString.assign(sourceString, start, numberOfCharacters);

where

sourceString

subscript and

is the

string

numberOfCharacters

to be copied,

start

is the starting

is the number of characters to copy.

Fig. 21.1 Demonstrating

string

assignment and concatenation.

Line 18 uses the subscript operator to assign (forming string s

"car" )

and to assign

'r'

to

'r'

string2[0]

to

string3[2]

(forming

"rat" ).

The

are then output.

Lines 24–26 output the contents of using member function

at .

string3

one character at a time

Member function

at

provides checked

access (or range checking); i.e., going past the end of the throws an

out_of_range

exception. The subscript operator,

not provide checked access.

string

[], does

This is consistent with its use on arrays.

Note that you can also iterate through the characters in a string using C++11’s range-based for as in 11

for (char c : string3) { cout ostringstream;

Class templates

basic_istringstream

the same functionality as classes

and

istream

basic_ostringstream

and

ostream

provide

plus other

member functions specific to in-memory formatting. Programs that use in-memory formatting must include the and headers.

Error-Prevention Tip 21.1 One application of these techniques is data validation. A program can read an entire line at a time from the input stream into a string . Next, a validation routine can scrutinize the contents of the string and correct (or repair) the data, if necessary. Then the program can proceed to input from the string , knowing that the input data is in the proper format.

Error-Prevention Tip 21.2 To assist with data validation, C++11 provides powerful regularexpression capabilities. For example, if a program requires a user to enter a U.S. format telephone number (e.g., (800) 555-1212 ), you can use a regular-expression pattern to confirm that the user’s input matches the expected format. Many websites provide regular expressions for validating email addresses, URLs, phone numbers, addresses and other popular kinds of data. We introduce regular expressions and provide several examples in Chapter 24. 11

Software Engineering Observation 21.1 Outputting to a

string

is a nice way to take advantage of the powerful

output formatting capabilities of C++ streams. Data can be prepared in a string to mimic the edited screen format. That string could be written to a disk file to preserve the screen image. An

ostringstream

The

object uses a

string

member function of class

str

object to store the output data.

ostringstream

returns a copy of that

string .3

3.

ostringstream

was introduced in Chapter 9. We cover it again here

for those who might read this chapter before Chapter 9.

Demonstrating ostringstream Figure 21.11 demonstrates an creates

ostringstream

object

ostringstream

outputString

(line 9) and uses the

stream insertion operator to output a series of values to the object.

object. The program string s

and numerical

Fig. 21.11 Using an

ostringstream

object.

Lines 21–22 output

string string1 , string string2 , string string3 ,

double double1 , string string4 , int integer , string string5

address of

int integer —all

to

outputString

the stream insertion operator and the call display a copy of the

string

and the

in memory. Line 25 uses

outputString.str()

to

created in lines 21–22. Line 28

demonstrates that more data can be appended to the

string

in

memory by simply issuing another stream insertion operation to outputString . Lines 29–30 display string outputString after appending additional characters. An

istringstream

object inputs data from a

program variables. Data is stored in an characters. Input from the

istringstream

istringstream

istringstream

input from any file. The end of the

in memory to

string

object as

object works identically to

string

is interpreted by the

object as end-of-file.

Demonstrating istringstream Figure 21.12 demonstrates input from an 9–10 create object The

string input

inputString

string input

istringstream

containing the data and

istringstream

constructed to contain the data in

contains the data

Input test 123 4.7 A

object. Lines

string input .

which, when read as input to the program, consist of two strings ( "Input" and "test" ), an int ( 123 ), a double ( 4.7 ) and a char ( 'A' ). These characters are extracted to variables integer , double1

and

character

in line 17.

string1 , string2 ,

Fig. 21.12 Demonstrating input from an

istringstream

object.

The data is then output in lines 19–22. The program attempts to read from inputString again in line 26. The if condition in line 29 uses

function

good

(Section 13.8) to test if any data remains. Because no

data remains, the function returns if … else

statement executes.

false

and the

else

part of the

21.13 C++11 Numeric Conversion Functions 11

C++11 added functions for converting from numeric values to and from

string s

string s

to numeric values. Though you could previously

perform such conversions using other techniques, the functions presented in this section were added for convenience.

Converting Numeric Values to string Objects C++11’s string

to_string

function (from the

header) returns the

representation of its numeric argument. The function is

overloaded for types

int , unsigned int , long , unsigned long , long

long , unsigned long long , float , double

and

long double .

Converting string Objects to Numeric Values

C++11 provides eight functions (Fig. 21.13; from the for converting

string

header)

objects to numeric values. Each function

attempts to convert the beginning of its

string

argument to a numeric

value. If no conversion can be performed, each function throws an invalid_argument exception. If the result of the conversion is out of range for the function’s return type, each function throws an out_of_range exception. Fig. 21.13 C++11 functions that convert from types. Function

string s

to numeric

Return type

Functions that convert to integral types stoi

int

stol

long

stoul

unsigned long

stoll

long long

stoull

unsigned long long

Functions that convert to floating-point types stof

float

stod

double

stold

long double

Functions That Convert string s to Integral Types Consider an example of converting a Assuming the

string

to an integral value.

string :

string s("100hello");

the following statement converts the beginning of the string to the value

100

and stores that value in

int

convertedInt :

int convertedInt = stoi(s);

Each function that converts a

string

to an integral type actually

receives three parameters—the last two have default arguments. The parameters are: A

string

containing the characters to convert.

A pointer to a

size_t

variable. The function uses this pointer to

store the index of the first character that was not converted. The default argument is a null pointer, in which case the function does not store the index.

An

int

from 2 to 36 representing the number’s base—the default

is base 10. So, the preceding statement is equivalent to

int convertedInt = stoi(s, nullptr, 10);

Given a

size_t

variable named

index ,

the statement:

int convertedInt = stoi(s, &index, 2);

converts the binary number

"100"

value 4) and stores in

(base 2) to an

the

int

"h"

(the first character that was not converted).

index

int

(100 in binary is

the location of the string’s letter

Functions That Convert string s to Floating-Point Types The functions that convert

string s

to floating-point types each receive

two parameters: A

string

containing the characters to convert.

A pointer to a

size_t

variable where the function stores the index

of the first character that was not converted. The default argument is a null pointer, in which case the function does not store the index. Consider an example of converting a Assuming the

string

to an floating-point value.

string :

string s("123.45hello");

the following statement converts the beginning of the double

value

123.45

and stores that value in

string

to the

convertedDouble :

double convertedDouble = stod(s);

Again, the second argument is a null pointer by default.

21.14 Wrap-Up This chapter discussed the details of C++ Standard Library class string . We discussed assigning, concatenating, comparing, searching and swapping strings. We also introduced a number of member functions to determine string characteristics, to find, replace and insert characters in a string, and to convert string s to pointer-based strings and vice versa. You learned about string iterators and performing input from and output to strings in memory. Finally, we introduced functions for converting numeric values to string s and for converting string s

to numeric values. In the next chapter, we introduce

struct s,

which are similar to classes, and discuss the manipulation of bits, characters and C strings.

Summary

Section 21.1 Introduction Class template

basic_string

provides typical string-manipulation

operations. The typedef statement

typedef basic_string< char > string;

creates the alias type typedef

To use

string

for

also is provided for the string s,

basic_string wchar_t

(p. 870). A

type ( wstring ).

include C++ Standard Library header

Assigning a single character to a

string

.

object is permitted in an

assignment statement. string s are not necessarily null terminated. Most

string

member functions take as arguments a starting

subscript location and the number of characters on which to operate. string member functions size and length ( p. 871 ) return the number of characters currently stored in a

string .

Section 21.2 string Assignment and Concatenation Class ( p.

string

871 )

provides overloaded

and function

assign

for assignments.

The subscript operator, element of a string

operator=

[] ,

provides read/write access to any

string .

member function

at

(p. 873) provides checked access (p.

873)—going past either end of the

string

exception. The subscript operator,

[] ,

access. The overloaded

+

(p. 873) perform

string

and

+=

throws an

out_of_range

does not provide checked

operators and member function

concatenation.

append

Section 21.3 Comparing string s Class

string

operators for string

provides overloaded string

and

>=

comparisons.

member function

compare

(or substrings) and returns number if the first

== , != , < , > , ; p. 905) shifts the bits of its left

operand right by the number of bits specified in its right operand. Right shifting an unsigned integer causes bits vacated at the left to be replaced by zeros. Vacated bits in signed integers can be replaced with zeros or ones. The bitwise complement operator ( ~ ; p. 905) takes one operand and inverts its bits—this produces the one’s complement of the operand.

As of C++14, you may now include binary literals in your source code. To do so, precede a sequence of 1s and 0s with 0b or 0B.

Section 22.6 Bit Fields Bit fields

(p. 914) reduce storage use by storing data in the

minimum number of bits required. Bit-field members must be declared as int or unsigned . A bit field is declared by following an

unsigned

or

int

member

name with a colon and the width of the bit field. The bit-field width must be an integer constant. If a bit field is specified without a name, the field is used as (p. 917) in the structure. An unnamed bit field with

width

on a new machine-word boundary.

padding

(p. 917) aligns the next bit field

Section 22.7 Character-Handling Library Function

islower

(p. 920) determines if its argument is a lowercase

letter ( a–z ). Function

isupper

(p. 920) determines whether its

argument is an uppercase letter ( A–Z ). Function

isdigit

(p. 918) determines if its argument is a digit ( 0–

isalpha

(p. 918) determines if its argument is an

9 ).

Function

uppercase ( A–Z ) or lowercase letter ( a–z ). Function

isalnum

(p. 918) determines if its argument is an

uppercase letter ( A–Z ), a lowercase letter ( a–z ), or a digit ( 0–9 ). Function

isxdigit

(p. 918) determines if its argument is a

hexadecimal digit ( A–F, Function

toupper

a–f, 0–9 ).

(p. 920) converts a lowercase letter to an

uppercase letter. Function

tolower

(p. 920) converts an uppercase

letter to a lowercase letter. Function isspace (p. 921) determines if its argument is one of the following whitespace characters: '\t'

or

' '

(space),

'\f', '\n', '\r',

'\v' .

Function

iscntrl

(p. 921) determines if its argument is a control

character, such as Function

ispunct

'\t', '\v' , '\f', '\a', '\b', '\r'

or

'\n' .

(p. 921) determines if its argument is a printing

character other than a space, a digit or a letter.

Function

isprint

(p. 921) determines if its argument is any printing

character, including space. Function isgraph (p. 921) determines if its argument is a printing character other than space.

Section 22.8 C String-Manipulation Functions Function

strcpy

(p. 924) copies its second argument into its first

argument. You must ensure that the target array is large enough to store the string and its terminating null character. Function strncpy (p. 924) is equivalent to strcpy , but it specifies the number of characters to be copied from the string into the array. The terminating null character will be copied only if the number of characters to be copied is at least one more than the length of the string. Function strcat (p. 925) appends its second string argument— including the terminating null character—to its first string argument. The first character of the second string replaces the null ( '\0' ) character of the first string. You must ensure that the target array used to store the first string is large enough to store both the first string and the second string. Function strncat (p. 925) is equivalent to strcat , but it appends a specified number of characters from the second string to the first string. A terminating null character is appended to the result. Function strcmp compares its first string argument with its second string argument character by character. The function returns zero if the strings are equal, a negative value if the first string is less than the second string and a positive value if the first string is greater than the second string.

Function

strncmp

is equivalent to

strcmp ,

but it compares a

specified number of characters. If the number of characters in one of the strings is less than the number of characters specified, strncmp compares characters until the null character in the shorter string is encountered. A sequence of calls to

strtok

(p. 928) breaks a string into tokens

that are separated by characters contained in a second string argument. The first call specifies the string to be tokenized as the first argument, and subsequent calls to continue tokenizing the same string specify NULL as the first argument. The function returns a pointer to the current token from each call. If there are no more tokens when strtok is called, NULL is returned. Function

strlen

(p. 929) takes a string as an argument and returns

the number of characters in the string—the terminating null character is not included in the length of the string.

Section 22.9 C String-Conversion Functions Function

atof

(p. 931) converts its argument—a string beginning

with a series of digits that represents a floating-point number—to a double value. Function

atoi

(p. 931) converts its argument—a string beginning

with a series of digits that represents an integer—to an Function

atol

int

(p. 932) converts its argument—a string beginning

with a series of digits that represents a long integer—to a value. Function

value.

strtod

long

(p. 932) converts a sequence of characters

representing a floating-point value to

double .

The function receives

two arguments—a string ( char* ) and the address of a

char*

pointer. The string contains the character sequence to be converted, and the pointer to char* is assigned the remainder of the string after the conversion. Function strtol (p. 933) converts a sequence of characters representing an integer to address of a

char*

long .

It receives a string ( char* ), the

pointer and an integer. The string contains the

character sequence to be converted, the pointer to

char*

is

assigned the location of the first character after the converted value and the integer specifies the base of the value being converted.

Function

strtoul

(p. 934) converts a sequence of characters

representing an integer to ( char* ), the address of a

unsigned long .

char*

It receives a string

pointer and an integer. The string

contains the character sequence to be converted, the pointer to char* is assigned the location of the first character after the converted value and the integer specifies the base of the value being converted.

Section 22.10 Search Functions of the C String-Handling Library Function

strchr

(p. 935) searches for the first occurrence of a

character in a string. If found,

strchr

character in the string; otherwise, Function

strcspn

returns a pointer to the

strchr

returns a null pointer.

(p. 936) determines the length of the initial part of

the string in its first argument that does not contain any characters from the string in its second argument. The function returns the length of the segment. Function strpbrk (p. 937) searches for the first occurrence in its first argument of any character that appears in its second argument. If a character from the second argument is found, strpbrk returns a pointer to the character; otherwise, strpbrk returns a null pointer. Function strrchr (p. 937) searches for the last occurrence of a character in a string. If the character is found,

strrchr

returns a

pointer to the character in the string; otherwise, it returns a null pointer. Function strspn (p. 938) determines the length of the initial part of its first argument that contains only characters from the string in its second argument and returns the length of the segment. Function strstr (p. 939) searches for the first occurrence of its second string argument in its first string argument. If the second

string is found in the first string, a pointer to the location of the string in the first argument is returned; otherwise it returns 0.

Section 22.11 Memory Functions of the C String-Handling Library Function

memcpy

(p. 940) copies a specified number of characters

from the object to which its second argument points into the object to which its first argument points. The function can receive a pointer to any object. The pointers are received as void pointers and converted to memcpy

char

pointers for use in the function. Function

manipulates the bytes of its argument as characters.

Function

memmove

(p. 941) copies a specified number of bytes from

the object pointed to by its second argument to the object pointed to by its first argument. Copying is accomplished as if the bytes were copied from the second argument to a temporary character array, then copied from the temporary array to the first argument. Function memcmp (p. 941) compares the specified number of characters of its first and second arguments. Function memchr (p. 942) searches for the first occurrence of a byte, represented as

unsigned char ,

in the specified number of

bytes of an object. If the byte is found, a pointer to it is returned; otherwise, a null pointer is returned. Function memset (p. 943) copies its second argument, treated as an unsigned char ,

to a specified number of bytes of the object pointed

to by the first argument.

Self-Review Exercises 1. 22.1 Fill in the blanks in each of the following: A. The bits in the result of an expression using the operator are set to one if the corresponding bits in each operand are set to one. Otherwise, the bits are set to zero. B. The bits in the result of an expression using the operator are set to one if at least one of the corresponding bits in either operand is set to one. Otherwise, the bits are set to zero. C. Keyword introduces a structure declaration. D. Keyword is used to create a synonym for a previously defined data type. E. Each bit in the result of an expression using the operator is set to one if exactly one of the corresponding bits in either operand is set to one. F. The bitwise AND operator & is often used to bits (i.e., to select certain bits from a bit string while zeroing others). G. The and operators are used to shift the bits of a value to the left or to the right, respectively. 2. 22.2 Write a single statement or a set of statements to accomplish each of the following:

A. Define a structure called partNumber

and

char

Part

array

containing

partName ,

int

variable

whose values may

be as long as 25 characters. B. Define PartPtr to be a synonym for the type

Part* .

C. Use separate statements to declare variable

a

type ptr

Part ,

array

b[10]

to be of type

to be of type pointer to

to be of

and variable

Part

Part .

D. Read a part number and a part name from the keyboard into the members of variable a . E. Assign the member values of variable of array

a

to element three

b.

F. Assign the address of array

b

to the pointer variable

ptr .

G. Print the member values of element three of array using the variable

ptr

b,

and the structure pointer operator

to refer to the members. 3. 22.3 Write a single statement to accomplish each of the following. Assume that variables c (which stores a character), x, y

and

z

are of type

double ;

variable

s2[100]

are of type

ptr

int ;

variables

is of type

char*

d, e

and

and arrays

f

are of type

s1[100]

and

char .

A. Convert the character stored in Assign the result to variable

c

to an uppercase letter.

c.

B. Determine if the value of variable

c

is a digit. Use the

conditional operator as shown in Figs. 22.18–22.20 to

print

" is a "

or

" is not a "

displayed. C. Convert the string

"1234567"

when the result is

to

long ,

and print the value.

D. Determine whether the value of variable

c

is a control

character. Use the conditional operator to print or

" is not a "

E. Assign to

ptr

" is a "

when the result is displayed.

the location of the last occurrence of

c

in

s1 .

F. Convert the string

"8.63582"

to

value. G. Determine whether the value of conditional operator to print

double ,

c

and print the

is a letter. Use the

" is a "

or

" is not a "

when the result is displayed. H. Assign to ptr the location of the first occurrence of

s2

in

s1 .

I. Determine whether the value of variable

c

is a printing

character. Use the conditional operator to print or

" is not a "

J. Assign to

ptr

when the result is displayed.

the location of the first occurrence in

any character from K. Assign to

ptr

" is a "

s1

s2 .

the location of the first occurrence of

s1 .

L. Convert the string

of

"-21"

to

int ,

and print the value.

c

in

Answers to Self-Review Exercises 1. 22.1 A. bitwise AND ( & ). B. bitwise inclusive OR ( | ). C.

struct .

D.

typedef .

E. bitwise exclusive OR ( ^ ). F. mask. G. left-shift operator ( > ). 2. 22.2 A.

struct Part { int partNumber; char partName[26]; };

B.

typedef Part* PartPtr;

C.

Part a; Part b[10];

Part* ptr;

D.

cin >> a.partNumber >> a.partName;

E.

b[3] = a;

F.

ptr = b;

G.

cout partNumber ,

stream extraction operator 54

>>= ,

|,

bitwise inclusive OR operator 905

|= ,

||

right shift with sign extension assignment operator 913

bitwise inclusive OR assignment operator 696, 913

logical OR operator 259

|| ,

logical OR 188, 189 truth table 190

~,

bitwise complement operator 905

Numerics 0X

593

0x

593

100 Destinations 35 2-D

array

308

A abbreviating assignment expressions 136 abort

abs

function 406, 771, 988

function 178

absolute value 215 abstract base class 547, 549 abstract class 547, 548, 549, 564 accelerometer 6 access a global variable 247 access function 399 access modifier in the UML - (private) 84 + (public) 84 access non- static class data members and member functions 433

access

private

member of a class 83

access privileges 353, 355 access specifier 82, 423 private 82 public

82

access the caller’s data 242 access violation 657 Account

Inheritance Hierarchy (exercise) 529

accounts-receivable program 650 accounts-receivable system 617 accumulate

algorithm 723, 726, 745, 746, 749

accumulated outputs 54 accumulator 377 action 110, 114, 118 action expression in the UML 107

action state in the UML 107, 196 action state symbol 107 action to execute 105 activation record 237 activity diagram 106, 107, 111, 165, 196 do ... while statement 180 for if

statement 165

statement 110

if ... else

statement 111

in the UML 118 sequence statement 107 switch statement 185 while

statement 118

activity in the UML 107 Ada Lovelace 13 Ada programming language 13 adapter 690 add a new account to a file 643

add an integer to a pointer 359 adding

string s

178

addition 7, 55, 56 addition compound assignment operator,

+=

136

addition program that displays the sum of two numbers 50 address of a bit field 917 address operator ( & ) 342, 344, 345, 454 addressable storage unit 917 adjacent_difference

adjacent_find

algorithm 749

algorithm 748

“administrative” section of the computer 7 aggregation 415 Agile Alliance ( www.agilealliance.org ) 36 Agile Manifesto ( www.agilemanifesto.org ) 36

agile software development 36 aiming a derived-class pointer at a base-class object 538 airline reservation system 628 Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) 35 alert escape sequence ( '\a' ) 48, 921 algebraic expression 56 algorithm 105, 119, 126

header 222, 674, 747, 748

algorithms 657, 667, 799 binary search 846 bubble sort 865 bucket sort 865 insertion sort 851, 853 linear search 843 merge sort 855 quicksort 866 recursive binary search 866 recursive linear search 866 selection sort 853

algorithms (Standard Library) accumulate 723, 726, 745 all_of

726, 730

any_of

726, 730

binary_search

306, 726, 730

copy_backward

733

copy_n count

735

723, 725

count_if equal

723, 725

717

equal_range fill

712, 714

fill_n find

740, 742

712, 714

726, 729

find_if

726, 729

find_if_not

726, 730

for_each

711, 723

generate

712, 714

generate_n includes

712, 714, 715

738

inplace_merge iter_swap

735, 736

731, 732

lexicographical_compare lower_bound max

743

741

715, 718

max_element merge min

723, 725

732, 734

743

min_element minmax

723, 725

743

minmax_element mismatch move

723, 725, 743

715, 717

734

move_backward none_of remove

734

726, 730

718, 720

remove_copy

720

remove_copy_if remove_if replace

718, 720, 735

718, 720

722

replace_copy

721, 722

replace_copy_if replace_if reverse

721, 723

721, 723

732, 735

reverse_copy

735, 736

separated from container 709 set_difference 737, 739 set_intersection

737, 739

set_symmetric_difference set_union

737, 739

737, 739

shuffle

723, 725

sort

306, 726, 730

swap

731, 732

swap_ranges transform unique

731, 732

723, 726

732, 734

unique_copy

735, 736

upper_bound

742

alias 244, 887 alias for the name of an object 409 alignment 901 all

696

all_of

algorithm 726, 730, 748

allocate 466 allocate dynamic memory 772 allocate memory 222, 466 allocator 674

allocator_type

661

Allowing Duplicates in Binary Trees 837 alpha software 38 alphabetizing animal names 896 alphabetizing strings 927, 953 ALU (arithmetic and logic unit) 7 Amazon 3 AMBER Alert 3 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 11 Analytical Engine 13 “ANDed” 907 Android 34 operating system 33 smartphone 33 Android TV 4

angle brackets ( < and

>)

251, 982

angle brackets ( < and

>)

in templates 786

anonymous function 710 anonymous function objects 708 ANSI (American National Standards Institute) 11 any

member function of class bitset 696

any_of

algorithm 726, 730, 748

Apache Software Foundation 33 append data to a file 618, 619 append

member function of class

Apple 3, 33 Apple Macintosh 33 Apple TV 4 argument coercion 219

string

873

argument for a macro 984 argument to a function 78 arguments in correct order 217 arguments passed to member-object constructors 415 arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) 7 arithmetic calculations 55 arithmetic compound assignment operators 136 arithmetic mean 57 arithmetic operator 55 arithmetic overflow 122, 776 arithmetic underflow 776 “arity” of an operator 454 ARPANET 34 array built-in 340, 349

name 362 notation for accessing elements 362 subscripting 363 array

285

bounds checking 295 Array

class 469

Array

class definition with overloaded operators 473

Array

class member-function and

array

class template 284

friend

function definitions 474

copy constructor called with parentheses 715 multidimensional array 308

header 221, 287

array subscript operator ( [] ) 472 array s

using instead of

switch

293

arrow 70, 107 arrow member selection operator ( -> ) 398, 399

arrow operator ( -> ) 425 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) 8 Character Set 71, 364, 582 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) character set 186 assembler 10 assembly language 10 assert

function 988

assign

member function of class

assign

member function of

list

string

871

679

assign one iterator to another 666 assigning addresses of base-class and derived-class objects to base-class and derived-class pointers 535 assigning class objects 412 assignment operator

=

53, 63

assignment operator functions 478

assignment operators 136, 411, 453, 661 assignment statement 53 associate from left to right 63, 139 associate from right to left 63, 139 association 689 associative container 661, 665, 681, 684 map 681 multimap

681

multiset

681

ordered 658, 681, 682 set 681 unordered 658, 681 unordered_map 681 unordered_multimap

681

unordered_multiset

681

unordered_set

681

associative container functions count 684 equal_range find

685

684

insert

684, 688

lower_bound

685

upper_bound

685

associativity 192 associativity chart 63, 140 associativity not changed by overloading 454 associativity of operators 56, 63 asterisk ( * ) 55 asynchronous event 767 at

member function 674, 696 class

string

453, 873

class

vector

322

atof

function 931

atoi

function 931

atol

function 932

attribute in the UML 16, 83

of a class 14 of an object 16 auto

keyword 309, 671

automated teller machine 628 automatic

array

287

automatic

array

initialization 296

automatic local

array

296

automatic object 768 automatic variable 815 automatic variables 296 automatically destroyed 235 average 57, 119, 122, 126 avoid naming conflicts 423 avoid repeating code 404

B Babbage, Charles 13 back

member function of

back

member function of sequence containers 674

back_inserter

queue

693

function template 734, 736

backslash ( \ ) 48, 985 backslash escape sequence ( \\ ) 48 backward pointer 814 backward traversal 886 bad

member function 603

bad_alloc

bad_cast

exception 674, 769, 770, 776

exception 776

bad_typeid

exception 776

badbit

of a stream 601, 603, 619

balanced tree 830 bandwidth 35 Bank account program 637 banker’s rounding 179, 209 banking system 628 bar chart 206, 291 bar chart printing program 291 bar of asterisks 291 base 2 905 base case(s) 254, 259, 261 base class 498, 501 pointer (or reference type) 800 base-class

catch

776

base-class constructor 524

base-class exception 775 base-class member accessibility in derived class 526 base-class pointer to a derived-class object 546 base-class

private

member 515

base e 215 base specified for a stream 597 base-10 number system 215, 593 base-16 number system 593 base-8 number system 593 base-class initializer syntax 511 base-class member function redefined in a derived class 523 BasePlusCommissionEmployee

class header 558

BasePlusCommissionEmployee

class implementation file 559

BasePlusCommissionEmployee

class represents an employee who

receives a base salary in addition to a commission 507

BasePlusCommissionEmployee

class test program 509

BasePlusCommissionEmployee

class that inherits from class

CommissionEmployee ,

which does not provide

protected

data 521

BASIC (Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) 13, 799 basic searching and sorting algorithms of the Standard Library 726 basic_fstream

class template 617

basic_ifstream

class template 617

basic_iostream

class template 580, 617

basic_istream

class template 580, 617

basic_istringstream

basic_ofstream

basic_ostream

class template 617

class template 617

basic_ostringstream

basic_string

class 887

class 887

template class 870

begin

function 351

begin

iterator 886

begin

library function 670, 671

begin

member function of class

begin

member function of containers 660

begin

member function of first-class containers 662

string

886

beginning of a file 622 beginning of a stream 623 behavior of a class 14 bell escape sequence 48 Bell Laboratories 11 beta software 38 bidirectional iterator 664, 665, 676, 682, 685, 687, 709, 733, 735, 736 operations 666

big data 9 Big O 855, 861 binary search O(logn) 861 bubble sort,

862

insertion sort,

862

linear search, O(n) 861 merge sort, O(n log n) 862 notation 306, 842, 844, 845, 850, 853, 855, 861 quicksort, best case O(n log n) 862 quicksort, worst case

862

recursive binary search O(log n) 862 recursive linear search, O(n) 862 selection sort,

862

binary (base 2) number system 968 binary digit (bit) 8 binary function 745 binary function object 745 binary integer 155 binary literals 914

binary number 918 binary number system 934 binary operator 53, 55, 190 binary predicate function 679, 717, 726, 730, 734, 739 binary search 842, 846, 850, 861 binary search efficiency 850 binary search tree 824, 829, 837 binary search tree implementation 824 binary tree 657, 798, 823, 824 level-order traversal 831, 838 of strings 837 search 263, 838 sort 829, 839 with duplicates 837 binary_search

algorithm 306, 726, 730, 748

bit (binary digit) 8, 900 bit field 905, 914, 917

bit-field manipulation 917 bit-field member of structure 915 bit fields save space 917 bit manipulation 905 “bits-and-bytes” level 905 bitset

659, 695, 696

header 221

bitwise AND assignment operator ( &= ) 913 bitwise AND operator ( & ) 905, 905, 908, 910, 949 bitwise AND, bitwise inclusive-OR, bitwise exclusive-OR and bitwise complement operators 908 bitwise assignment operators 696, 913 bitwise complement 906 bitwise complement operator ( ~ ) 905, 908, 911, 913, 975 bitwise exclusive OR assignment operator ( ^= ) 913

bitwise exclusive OR operator ( ^ ) 905, 908, 911 bitwise inclusive OR assignment operator ( |= ) 913 bitwise inclusive OR operator ( | ) 633, 905, 908, 910 bitwise left-shift operator ( > ) 448 bitwise shift operator 911 blank line 126 block 62, 113, 128, 233, 235 block of data 939 block of memory 680, 939 block scope 233, 234 body mass index (BMI) 42

calculator 42 body of a function 47 body of a loop 118 body of an

if

statement 60

Bohm, C. 106 bool

cast operator of a stream 583

bool

data type 110

bool

value

false

bool

value

true

boolalpha

110

110

stream manipulator 191, 452, 592, 599

Boolean 110 Boost 172 Boost C++ Libraries 39 bottom of a stack 814

boundary of a storage unit 917 bounds checking 295 box 70 braces ( { and

})

113, 128

not required 184 braces ( {} ) 47, 62 bracket ( [] ) 286

break

statement 184, 186, 208

brittle software 518 bubble sort 862, 865, 866 improving performance 865 bucket 865 bucket sort 865 buffer is filled 581 buffer is flushed 581

buffer overflow 295 buffered output 581 buffered standard error stream 580 buffering 604 building block appearance 196 building blocks 104 Building Your Own Compiler exercise 799 Building Your Own Computer exercise 376 building-block approach 12 built-in array 340, 349 business-critical computing 763 business publications 39 byte 7, 905

C .C

extension 17

C legacy code 982, 983, 988 C-like pointer-based array 659 C programming language 11 C string 364 c_str

member function of class

string

885

C# programming language 13 C++ 11 C++ compiler 18 C++ development environment 18, 19 C++ How to Program, 10/e instructor resources xxxv C++ preprocessor 17, 46

C++ Standard Library 11, 213 header 77 array

class template 284

class template

vector

317

headers 220, 221 string class 77, 80 C++11 38, 257 all_of algorithm 730 anonymous function objects 708 any_of algorithm 730 associative container keys are immutable 659 auto keyword 309, 685 begin

function 351, 670, 671

cbegin

container member function 671

cend

container member function 671

cend

function 671

compiler fix for types ending in copy_n

>>

684

algorithm 735

crbegin

container member function 671

crend

container member function 671

crend

function 671

default

special member function 546

default type arguments for function template type parameters 793 delegating constructor 405

end

function 351, 670, 671

find_if_not

algorithm 730

forward_list

class template 658, 676

in-class initializer 389 insert container member function (now returns an iterator) 675 iota

algorithm 749

list initialization 51, 135, 688 list initialization of a return type 688 list initialization of associative container 689 minmax algorithm 743 minmax_element move

algorithm 725, 743

algorithm 734

move assignment operator 660 move constructor 659 move_backward algorithm 734 noexcept none_of

768

algorithm 730

non-member container nullptr

swap

function 660

constant 342

override

542

random_device

random-number source 725

random-number generation 292 rend function 671 scoped enumeration ( enum shrink_to_fit

672

class )

230

container member function for

vector

and

deque

shuffle

algorithm 725

specifying an

enum ’s

stod

function 891

stof

function 891

stoi

function 891

stol

function 891

stold

function 891

stoll

function 891

stoul

function 891

stoull

function 891

to_string tuple

integral type 232

function 890

container 685

unique_ptr

class template 772

unordered_multimap

class template 658

unordered_multiset

class template 658

unordered_set

class template 658

C++14 2, 38 binary literals 914 cbegin function 671 crbegin

function 671

digit separator

'

225

generic lambdas 711 heterogeneous lookup (associative containers) 685 make_unique function template 773, 775 quoted

stream manipulator 627

rbegin

function 671

string -object

literal 452

C++17 39 calculate a salesperson’s earnings 151 Calculating Number of Seconds exercise 275 calculations 7, 55, 107 call stack 354 calling function (caller) 80 calling functions by reference 345 calling method (caller) 213 camel case 79 capacity

member function

of

string

879

of

vector

669

capacity of a string 877 capturing variables in a lambda 711, 712

carbon footprint calculator 42 CarbonFootprint

Abstract Class: Polymorphism exercise 575

Card Shuffling and Dealing exercise 444, 445, 948 simulation 900, 902, 904 carriage return ( '\r' ) escape sequence 48, 918, 921 carry bit 975 cascading member function calls 425, 426, 428 cascading stream insertion operations 54 case

keyword 184

case sensitive 52 casino 228

header 222, 988

cast 361 downcast 540 cast expression 985

cast operator 128, 220, 481 cast operator function 481 cast variable visible in debugger 983 catch

a base class object 776

catch

all exceptions 776

catch

block 322

catch

clause (or handler) 764, 767

catch

handler 762

catch related errors 776 catch(...)

776, 777

Catching All Exceptions 782 Catching Derived-Class Exceptions 781 cbegin

library function 671

cbegin

member function of containers 660

cbegin

member function of

vector

671

header 221, 918

CD 616 ceil

function 214

Celsius and Fahrenheit Temperatures exercise 275 cend

library function 671

cend

member function of containers 660

cend

member function of

vector

671

central processing unit (CPU) 7 cerr

(standard error stream) 19, 580, 616

header 222

chaining stream insertion operations 54 char **

char

932

data type 51, 220, 884, 905

char*

strings 871

char16_t

579

char32_t

579

character 8, 900 constant 186 character array 365, 884 character constant 364 character-handling functions 918 isdigit , isalpha , isalnum and

isxdigit

islower , isupper , tolower

toupper

and

isspace , iscntrl , ispunct , isprint

character manipulation 213 character presentation 222 character sequences 628 character set 8, 70 character string 47, 286

919

920

and

isgraph

922

characters represented as numeric codes 928 character-string manipulation 918 checked access 873 checkerboard pattern 70, 155 Checkerboard Pattern of Asterisks exercise 155 checkout line in a supermarket 837 child 823 chrono

library 443

(standard input stream) 19, 53, 580, 616, 620

cin

function

getline

cin.clear

366

604

cin.eof

583

cin.get

function 584

cin.tie

function 604

Circle Area exercise 280 circular, doubly linked list 814 circular, singly linked list 813 Cisco 3 Clang/LLVM 20, 38

class 15, 983 class keyword 79 client-code programmer 396 constructor 84 data member 16 default constructor 87 implementation programmer 396 interface 388 interface described by function prototypes 217 public services 388 class-average problem 119, 120, 125, 127 class definition 79 class development 469 class hierarchy 499, 546, 548 class-implementation programmer 396 class keyword 79, 251, 786 class members default to

private

access 900

class scope 233, 391, 398 class template 284, 286, 785, 802, 870 definition 785 scope 788 specialization 785, 785 Stack 786, 788 class variable 304 classes 11 Array 469 array

class template 284

bitset

659, 695, 696

Complex deque

490

667, 680

exception

759

forward_list HugeInt

667, 676

492

invalid_argument list

667, 675

multimap

687

out_of_range Polynomial

322

495

priority_queue queue

694

693

RationalNumber runtime_error set

776

495

759, 767

685

stack

691

string

77, 80

unique_ptr vector

772, 772

317

classic stream libraries 579 clear function of ios_base 603 clear

member function of containers 660

clear

member function of first-class containers 675

client

of a class 88 client code 533 client-code programmer 396 header 222 Clion 17 clog (standard error buffered) 580, 616 close

member function of

ofstream

620

cloud computing 4, 37 header 221 COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) 12 code 16 code maintenance 94 CodeLite 17 coefficient 495 coin tossing 223, 276 Coin Tossing exercise 276 colon ( : ) 419 column 307 column headings 287 column subscript 307 Combining Class Time and Class

Date

exercise 442

combining control statements in two ways 193 comma ( , ) 167 comma operator ( , ) 167, 259 comma-separated list of parameters 218 51, 62, 167, 341 command-line argument 352 Command Prompt window 23

comment 46, 52 commercial data processing 649 CommissionEmployee class header 556 CommissionEmployee

class implementation file 557

CommissionEmployee

class represents an employee paid a

percentage of gross sales 502 CommissionEmployee class test program 505 CommissionEmployee

its

private

class uses member functions to manipulate

data 519

Common Programming Errors overview xxxiii commutative 481 commutative operation 481 comparator function object 682, 687 comparator function object less 682, 694 compare iterators 666 compare member function of class

string

875

comparing strings 923, 926 comparing blocks of memory 939 comparing string s 873, 952 compartment in a UML class diagram 83 compilation error 47, 136 compilation phase 47 compile 17 compile-time error 47 compiler 10, 46, 47, 129, 815 GNU C++ 20, 38 Visual Studio 2015 Community Edition for Windows 20, 38

Xcode on Mac OS X 20, 38 compiler error 47 compiling 657, 798, 831 multiple-source-file program 398 complement operator ( ~ ) 905 Complex

Class 613

Complex

class 441, 490, 491

exercise 441 Complex class member-function definitions 491 complex numbers 441, 490 component 14, 212 composition 415, 420, 498, 501, 818 as an alternative to inheritance 528 compound assignment operators 136, 139 compound interest 167, 206, 209 compound statement 62 computer-assisted instruction (CAI) 281 Difficulty Levels 281 Monitoring Student Performance 281 Reducing Student Fatigue 281 Varying the Types of Problems 282 computer network 820 computer program 5 Computer Simulator exercise 379 Computerization of Health Records exercise 102 computers in education 281 computing the sum of the elements of an array 290 concatenate 873

lists 835 stream insertion operations 54 strings 925 two linked list objects 835 concrete class 547 concrete derived class 552 condition 59, 114, 180 conditional compilation 982, 985 conditional execution of preprocessing directives 982 conditional expression 114 conditional operator, ?: 114 conditional preprocessing directives 985 conditionally compiled output statement 986 confusing equality ( == ) and assignment ( = ) operators 59, 193 const

414, 459, 983

member function 413 member function on a

const

object 414

member function on a non- const object 414 object 414 objects and member functions 414 const keyword 186, 241 const

member function 82

const

qualifier 289, 352

const

qualifier before type specifier in parameter declaration

244 const

reference parameter 245

const

version of

operator[]

479

const

with function parameters 352

const_iterator const_pointer

660, 661, 662, 665, 684, 686, 886

661

const_reference

661

const_reverse_iterator

660, 661, 665, 671, 887

constant integral expression 186 constant pointer to an integer constant 355 to constant data 353, 355 to nonconstant data 353, 354 constant reference 478 constant runtime 844 constant variable 186, 289, 290 constructed inside out 420 constructor 84 called automatically 405 cannot be virtual 546 conversion 481, 484 copy 477 default arguments 402 deleted 525 explicit 484 function prototype 388 inherit 525 inherit from base class 524 multiple parameters 89 single argument 483, 484

throwing exceptions from 782 container 221, 399, 472, 656, 658, 799 begin function 660 cbegin cend

function 660

function 660

clear

function 660

crbegin

function 660

crend

function 660

empty

function 659

end

function 660

erase

function 660

insert map

function 659

associative container 681

max_size

function 660

multimap

associative container 681

multiset

associative container 681

rbegin rend set

function 660

function 660

associative container 681

size

function 659

swap

function 660

unordered_map

associative container 681

unordered_multimap

associative container 681

unordered_multiset

associative container 681

unordered_set

associative container 681

container adapter 658, 659, 665, 690 function pop 691 function

push

691

priority_queue queue

693

stack

691

continue

694

statement 186, 187, 208

continuous beta 38 control characters 921 control statement 105, 106, 109, 110 nesting 109, 197 stacking 109, 194 switch 180 control statements if 59, 62 control variable 119, 160, 161 controlling expression of a switch 184 converge on the base case 261 conversion constructor 481, 483, 484 conversion operator 481 explicit 484 convert among fundamental types by cast 482 among user-defined types and built-in types 481 between types 481 binary number to decimal 973 hexadecimal number to decimal 973

lowercase letters 221 octal number to decimal 973 string s to C-style strings and character arrays 884 Strings to Floating-Point Numbers exercise 951 strings to floating-point types 891 Strings to Integers exercise 950 strings to integral types 891 converting Fahrenheit to Celsius exercise 612 Cooking with Healthier Ingredients exercise 897 copy algorithm 674, 747 copy assignment 411 copy constructor 413, 419, 452, 472, 477, 478, 525, 659, 661 copy member function of class string 632, 885 copy of the argument 352 copy_backward algorithm 733, 747 copy_if copy_n

algorithm 747

algorithm 735, 747

copy-and-paste approach 511 Copying a List in Reverse Order 835 copying strings 924 correct number of arguments 217 correct order of arguments 217 cos function 214 cosine 214 count algorithm 723, 725, 748 count

function of associative container 684

count_if

algorithm 723, 725, 748

counter 119, 125, 132, 152 counter-controlled iteration 119, 120, 128, 131, 132, 160, 161, 261 counting loop 161 Counting Vowels exercise 896 cout (

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